Microwave Devices and waveguides

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By: dhab (42 month(s) ago)

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By: dhab (42 month(s) ago)

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Presentation Transcript

Microwave Devices : 

Microwave Devices

Introduction : 

Introduction Microwaves have frequencies > 1 GHz approx. Stray reactances are more important as frequency increases Transmission line techniques must be applied to short conductors like circuit board traces Device capacitance and transit time are important Cable losses increase: waveguides often used instead

Waveguides : 

Waveguides Pipe through which waves propagate Can have various cross sections Rectangular Circular Elliptical Can be rigid or flexible Waveguides have very low loss

Slide 4: 


Modes : 

Modes Waves can propagate in various ways Time taken to move down the guide varies with the mode Each mode has a cutoff frequency below which it won’t propagate Mode with lowest cutoff frequency is dominant mode

Slide 6: 


Mode Designations : 

Mode Designations TE: transverse electric Electric field is at right angles to direction of travel TM: transverse magnetic Magnetic field is at right angles to direction of travel TEM: transverse electromagnetic Waves in free space are TEM

Rectangular Waveguides : 

Rectangular Waveguides Dominant mode is TE10 1 half cycle along long dimension (a) No half cycles along short dimension (b) Cutoff for a = c/2 Modes with next higher cutoff frequency are TE01 and TE20 Both have cutoff frequency twice that for TE10

Slide 9: 


Cutoff Frequency : 

Cutoff Frequency For TE10 mmode in rectangular waveguide with a = 2 b

Usable Frequency Range : 

Usable Frequency Range Single mode propagation is highly desirable to reduce dispersion This occurs between cutoff frequency for TE10 mode and twice that frequency It’s not good to use guide at the extremes of this range

Example Waveguide : 

Example Waveguide RG-52/U Internal dimensions 22.9 by 10.2 mm Cutoff at 6.56 GHz Use from 8.2-12.5 GHz

Group Velocity : 

Group Velocity Waves propagate at speed of light c in guide Waves don’t travel straight down guide Speed at which signal moves down guide is the group velocity and is always less than c

Slide 14: 


Phase Velocity : 

Phase Velocity Not a real velocity (>c) Apparent velocity of wave along wall Used for calculating wavelength in guide For impedance matching etc.

Slide 16: 


Characteristic Impedance : 

Characteristic Impedance Z0 varies with frequency

Guide Wavelength : 

Guide Wavelength Longer than free-space wavelength at same frequency

Impedance Matching : 

Impedance Matching Same techniques as for coax can be used Tuning screw can add capacitance or inductance

Coupling Power to Guides : 

Coupling Power to Guides 3 common methods Probe: at an E-field maximum Loop: at an H-field maximum Hole: at an E-field maximum

Slide 21: 


Directional Coupler : 

Directional Coupler Launches or receives power in only 1 direction Used to split some of power into a second guide Can use probes or holes

Slide 23: 


Passive Compenents : 

Passive Compenents Bends Called E-plane or H-Plane bends depending on the direction of bending Tees Also have E and H-plane varieties Hybrid or magic tee combines both and can be used for isolation

Slide 25: 


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Slide 27: 


Resonant Cavity : 

Resonant Cavity Use instead of a tuned circuit Very high Q

Slide 29: 


Attenuators and Loads : 

Attenuators and Loads Attenuator works by putting carbon vane or flap into the waveguide Currents induced in the carbon cause loss Load is similar but at end of guide

Slide 31: 


Circulator and Isolator : 

Circulator and Isolator Both use the unique properties of ferrites in a magnetic field Isolator passes signals in one direction, attenuates in the other Circulator passes input from each port to the next around the circle, not to any other port

Slide 33: 


Slide 34: 


Slide 35: 


Microwave Solid-State Devices : 

Microwave Solid-State Devices

Microwave Transistors : 

Microwave Transistors Designed to minimize capacitances and transit time NPN bipolar and N channel FETs preferred because free electrons move faster than holes Gallium Arsenide has greater electron mobility than silicon

Gunn Device : 

Gunn Device Slab of N-type GaAs (gallium arsenide) Sometimes called Gunn diode but has no junctions Has a negative-resistance region where drift velocity decreases with increased voltage This causes a concentration of free electrons called a domain

Slide 39: 


Transit-time Mode : 

Transit-time Mode Domains move through the GaAs till they reach the positive terminal When domain reaches positive terminal it disappears and a new domain forms Pulse of current flows when domain disappears Period of pulses = transit time in device

Slide 41: 


Gunn Oscillator Frequency : 

Gunn Oscillator Frequency T=d/v T = period of oscillation d = thickness of device v = drift velocity, about 1  105 m/s f = 1/T

IMPATT Diode : 

IMPATT Diode IMPATT stands for Impact Avalanche And Transit Time Operates in reverse-breakdown (avalanche) region Applied voltage causes momentary breakdown once per cycle This starts a pulse of current moving through the device Frequency depends on device thickness

Slide 44: 


PIN Diode : 

PIN Diode P-type --- Intrinsic --- N-type Used as switch and attenuator Reverse biased - off Forward biased - partly on to on depending on the bias

Slide 46: 


Varactor Diode : 

Varactor Diode Lower frequencies: used as voltage-variable capacitor Microwaves: used as frequency multiplier this takes advantage of the nonlinear V-I curve of diodes

YIG Devices : 

YIG Devices YIG stands for Yttrium - Iron - Garnet YIG is a ferrite YIG sphere in a dc magnetic field is used as resonant cavity Changing the magnetic field strength changes the resonant frequency

Dielectric Resonator : 

Dielectric Resonator resonant cavity made from a slab of a dielectric such as alumina Makes a good low-cost fixed-frequency resonant circuit

Microwave Tubes : 

Microwave Tubes Used for high power/high frequency combination Tubes generate and amplify high levels of microwave power more cheaply than solid state devices Conventional tubes can be modified for low capacitance but specialized microwave tubes are also used

Magnetron : 

Magnetron High-power oscillator Common in radar and microwave ovens Cathode in center, anode around outside Strong dc magnetic field around tube causes electrons from cathode to spiral as they move toward anode Current of electrons generates microwaves in cavities around outside

Slide 52: 


Slow-Wave Structure : 

Slow-Wave Structure Magnetron has cavities all around the outside Wave circulates from one cavity to the next around the outside Each cavity represents one-half period Wave moves around tube at a velocity much less than that of light Wave velocity approximately equals electron velocity

Duty Cycle : 

Duty Cycle Important for pulsed tubes like radar transmitters Peak power can be much greater than average power

Crossed-Field and Linear-Beam Tubes : 

Crossed-Field and Linear-Beam Tubes Magnetron is one of a number of crossed-field tubes Magnetic and electric fields are at right angles Klystrons and Traveling-Wave tubes are examples of linear-beam tubes These have a focused electron beam (as in a CRT)

Klystron : 

Klystron Used in high-power amplifiers Electron beam moves down tube past several cavities. Input cavity is the buncher, output cavity is the catcher. Buncher modulates the velocity of the electron beam

Slide 57: 


Velocity Modulation : 

Velocity Modulation Electric field from microwaves at buncher alternately speeds and slows electron beam This causes electrons to bunch up Electron bunches at catcher induce microwaves with more energy The cavities form a slow-wave structure

Slide 59: 


Traveling-Wave Tube (TWT) : 

Traveling-Wave Tube (TWT) Uses a helix as a slow-wave structure Microwaves input at cathode end of helix, output at anode end Energy is transferred from electron beam to microwaves

Slide 61: 


Microwave Antennas : 

Microwave Antennas Conventional antennas can be adapted to microwave use The small wavelength of microwaves allows for additional antenna types The parabolic dish already studied is a reflector not an antenna but we saw that it is most practical for microwaves

Horn Antennas : 

Horn Antennas Not practical at low frequencies because of size Can be E-plane, H-plane, pyramidal or conical Moderate gain, about 20 dBi Common as feed antennas for dishes

Slide 64: 


Slot Antenna : 

Slot Antenna Slot in the wall of a waveguide acts as an antenna Slot should have length g/2 Slots and other basic antennas can be combined into phased arrays with many elements that can be electrically steered

Fresnel Lens : 

Fresnel Lens Lenses can be used for radio waves just as for light Effective lenses become small enough to be practical in the microwave region Fresnel lens reduces size by using a stepped configuration

Radar : 

Radar Radar stands for Radio Dedtection And Ranging Two main types Pulse radar locates targets by measuring time for a pulse to reflect from target and return Doppler radar measures target speed by frequency shift of returned signal It is possible to combine these 2 types

Radar Cross Section : 

Radar Cross Section Indicates strength of returned signal from a target Equals the area of a flat conducting plate facing the source that reflects the same amount of energy to the source

Radar Equation : 

Radar Equation Expression for received power from a target

Pulse Radar : 

Pulse Radar Direction to target found with directional antenna Distance to target found from time taken for signal to return from target R = ct/2

Slide 71: 


Maximum Range : 

Maximum Range Limited by pulse period If reflection does not return before next pulse is transmitted the distance to the target is ambiguous Rmax = cT/2

Slide 73: 


Minimum Range : 

Minimum Range If pulse returns before end of transmitted pulse, it will not be detected Rmin = cTP/2 A similar distance between targets is necessary to separate them

Doppler Radar : 

Doppler Radar Motion along line from radar to target changes frequency of reflection Motion toward radar raises frequency Motion away from radar lowers frequency

Slide 76: 


Doppler Effect : 

Doppler Effect

Slide 78: 


Limitations of Doppler Radar : 

Limitations of Doppler Radar Only motion towards or away from radar is measured accurately If motion is diagonal, only the component along a line between radar and target is measured

Slide 80: 


Stealth : 

Stealth Used mainly by military planes, etc to avoid detection Avoid reflections by making the aircraft skin absorb radiation Scatter reflections using sharp angles