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ENVIRONMENT Made By-; Abhay Chellani VIII-A

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O U T L I N E OF THE P R E S E N T A T I O N What is environment? Problems affecting the environment Acid rain Preventive methods from acid rain Pollution Controlling pollution Global warming Controlling global warming Depletion of ozone layer Prevention of depletion of ozone layer Rainforest destruction Saving the rainforest

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The natural environment, encompasses all living and non-living things occurring on Earth. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. The concept of the environment can be distinguished by components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity. WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT ? The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment, which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment if the human impact on it is kept under a certain limited level. A variety of environmental problems now affect our entire world.  As globalization continues and the earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues, few societies are being left untouched by major environmental problems.

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PROBLEMS AFFECTING THE ENVIRONMENT Some of the largest problems now affecting the world are: Acid Rain Pollution Global Warming Ozone Depletion Rain Forest Destruction

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ACID RAIN Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i.e. elevated levels of hydrogen ions. It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. However, the nitrogen oxides can also be caused naturally by lightning strikes or the release of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere by volcano eruptions.

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Preventive methods FROM ACID RAIN Many coal-burning power plants use Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) to remove sulphur-containing gases from their stack gases. For a typical coal-fired power station, FGD will remove 95% more of the SO2 in the flue gases. Vehicle emissions control reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles. A number of international treaties on the long range transport of atmospheric pollutants have been agreed e.g. Sulphur Emissions Reduction Protocol. . Most European countries and Canada have signed the treaties.

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POLLUTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and Zambia..

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Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. CONTROLLING POLLUTION

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Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C during the 20th century. Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which is the result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation. GLOBAL WARMING

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CONTROLLING GLOBAL WARMING #> Use Public Transport #> Use Renewable Energy Like Wind -Power #> Burn Methane #> Use Smart Cooler, Heater & Air Conditioner #>Tune up and maintain vehicles properly #>Clean the air in your house #> Reduce electricity usage to the maximum #>Prefer recycling

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Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period. The latter phenomenon is commonly referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to this well-known stratospheric ozone depletion, there are also tropospheric ozone depletion events, which occur near the surface in polar regions during spring. CFCs and other contributory substances are commonly referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER

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IMO has amended MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 12 regarding ozone depleting substances. As from 1 July 2010 all vessels where MARPOL Annex VI is applicable should have a list of equipment using ozone depleting substances In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly voted to designate the 16th of September as "World Ozone Day", to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on that date in 1987. PREVENTION OF DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER

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Logging Agriculture - Shifted Cultivators Agriculture - Cash Crops and Cattle Ranching Fuel wood Large dams Mining and industry Colonisation schemes Tourism RAINFOREST DESTRUCTION

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Here are some of the methods used to save the rainforest-: Reforestation is one of the most effective ways to prevent rainforest destruction. It is the process of replanting trees in diminished forests. It is a fast and easy solution to a lot of environmental issues like global warming and animal extinction. Recycling is also a great approach to prevent rainforest destruction. It is a method used to process waste materials by undergoing a special treatment. This is done to be able to decrease the usage of new materials. Participating in environmental campaigns is another way of preventing this problem. Joining government projects like tree planting can be a great place to start. There are also non-government agencies that support this mission. And with your help, rainforest destruction will be a thing of the past. SAVING THE RAINFOREST

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