Interior Design History

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HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGN:

HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGN ANURADHA KIRAN

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION In the modern world, human life experience is largely played out in interior spaces . We may love the out-of-doors for the sense of open air and sky, for the escape it offers from life inside enclosure, but the very joy of being outside reflects the reality that so much of life is spent inside. Buildings and their interiors are planned to serve the purposes and styles of the times of their origins, but they exert their influence on the activities and lives that they house as long as they continue in use. The study of interior design, its development and change through history is a useful way both to explore the past and to make sense of the spaces in which modern life is lived. Professional interior designers are expected to study design history, to know the practices of the past in terms of "styles," and to know the names and the nature of the contributions of those individuals who generated the most interesting and influential approaches to design.

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INDIGENOUS ARCHITECTURE

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE:

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE The purest definition of vernacular architecture is simple…it is architecture without architects. It is the pure response to a particular person’s or society’s building needs. It fulfills these needs because it is crafted by the individual and society it is in. In addition the building methods are tested through trial-and-error by the society of which they are built until their building methods near perfection (over time) and are tailored to the climatic, aesthetic, functional, and sociological needs of their given society. Because the person constructing the structure tends to be the person who will be using it, the architecture will be perfectly tailored to that individual’s particular wants and needs.

PRE HISTORIC EVIDENCES:

PRE HISTORIC EVIDENCES Almost all traces of early buildings are lost. The individual creativity of the people of these times is understood by studying the art that has endured inside caves and rock faces. Chauvet Caves ,France (30,000 B.C.E.) –Paintings of bison, deer and pigs. Australian Rock Art, Laura Region, Cape York Peninsula ( 30,000-25000 BCE)-emu with eggs. Apollo 11 cave stones, Namibia ( 25000-23500 BCE)- Charcoal, ochre and white designs. Mal’ta, Siberia ( 20,000 BCE)- Subterranean houses of bones and antlers, carvings. Mezhririch on Dnieper River, Ukaraine (16,000 BCE)- Mammoth bone huts. Cave at Lascaux,France (15000 BCE):Images of animals and abstract designs. Great Cave, Altamira,Spain (14,000 -9500 BCE ): Paintings of bison,deer and pigs. La Vache,Alliat,France (10,900 BCE)- Cats carved on reindeer bones.

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Skara Brae , Scotland

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Skara Brae , Scotland

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Hall of Bulls , Lascaux

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Evidence A valuable contribution to our knowledge of ancient furniture came from the excavation site at Akrotiri , where the Minoan city of Thera was preserved by lava from a volcanic eruption. Although the actual furniture has long since perished, it has left cavities in the larval rock. By using these cavities as moulds, archaeologists have been able to reproduce the furniture that stood in these ancient Minoan homes. Examples The best examples of ancient furniture still in existence are those found in the tombs of Egyptian noblemen. Egyptian furniture was placed in tombs for the use of the deceased in the afterlife, and many items are still in good condition due to the hot, dry climate and the fact that they were sealed inside the burial chambers

Ancient Furniture History & Design :

Ancient Furniture History & Design History After the retreat of the last ice age, the hunter-gatherer communities of the Stone Age gradually began to acquire the skills of agriculture, and civilizations were born. No longer perpetually on the move in an endless search for food, families were able to build homes and acquire possessions. Division of labor was possible, and skilled craftsmen began to develop their trades in producing articles such as jewelry, pottery and furniture. Ancient Furniture Although much ancient art such as pottery and jewelry survives from the earliest civilizations, ancient furniture was mostly wooden, and has long since rotted away. Our knowledge of ancient furniture is mainly derived from scenes depicted in early art forms, such as pottery decorations and frescos. Perhaps the earliest furniture in existence is that found at Catal Huyuk in Turkey that dates from around 3000 BC.

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Jericho , Israel

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Çatal Hüyük, Turkey

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Çatal Hüyük, Turkey

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Çatal Hüyük, Turkey

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Ur, Iraq – plan and interior view (reconstruction) of a single home

What is Furniture?:

What is Furniture? “Furniture “ is described as "movable articles in a room.... that render it fit for living or working". It's basic uses are: Storage: Sitting or reclining; To provide flat surfaces on which to dine, write, etc. However, since ancient times to the contemporary era, furniture design and making has been an expression of culture and civilization and beyond the merely functional aspect. Furniture is all around us, taken for granted, and its real meaning can be obscured and then lost.

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Chinese Many items of ancient Chinese furniture have also been preserved, since Chinese civilization has continued uninterrupted for thousands of years, and works of art have been treasured through the centuries. Egyptian & Greco Roman Although surviving Egyptian furniture , Greek furniture and Roman furniture is rare, a lot of information is available regarding the ancient design of homes and furniture in these cultures. This is because ancient Egyptian art, Greek art, and ancient Roman art, artifacts and literature are plentiful, giving us a good idea of how these ancient people lived. Classical Revival Greek, Roman and Egyptian decor was the inspiration for the neoclassical furniture styles popular in Europe and America in the 18th and 19th centuries particularly the neoclassical furniture of the late Georgian era in England and also Regency Furniture .

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The European & American Traditions European furniture design styles and North American furniture styles generally follow the main splits and divisions in European and American culture, principally the historic interaction and struggle between the Classical view of life and the Romantic as can be seen in the history of English furniture . Classicism & Romanticism Most period or pre-modern furniture can be defined as either Classical or Romantic in design and meaning. Classicism, rooted in ancient furniture times and echoed weakly in the medieval furniture period, in relation to the history of furniture design, is symmetrical in lines, serious and grand in aspect, rigorous and balanced in construction. The archetypal Classical furniture is that of the seventeenth century Baroque style. Romanticism, in contrast, urges on us joyfulness, passion, humor, and movement. The eighteenth century Rococo style of furniture is the finest expression of the Romantic view in the realm of home decor.

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Oriental Furniture The story of the Asian furniture world is in sharp distinction to the European. Over a great many centuries styles of design changed little until contact with the Western world ensued. Chinese & Japanese Overwhelmingly dominant in importance here are the Japanese, minimalist, and the Chinese, ornate, traditions and styles which have had considerable influence on Western designers. Furniture Styles This historical look at furniture making, art and design is an attempt to relate the meaning of furniture styles and history to the present day needs of home furnishings and decor, to acquaint the reader with the knowledge and understanding required to accurately express her own tastes in furniture.

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Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptians formed the first of the great classical civilizations. While most of Europe was still in the Stone Age, the Egyptians were building palaces, studying mathematics and writing on papyrus. They were great builders and great artists, drawing the inspiration for their art from nature. A complex social and religious structure was in place. The Egyptians kept books of accounts and recorded history; their children played with carved wooden toys with moving parts. Egypt was eventually conquered by Alexander the Great, and later by the Romans. Both the Greek and Roman conquerors were significantly influenced by Egyptian culture, art and philosophy, so that to some extent it was a case of the conquerors being civilized by the conquered. Post and Lintel Construction: Mud brick houses Flat roofs with trellises Interior Courtyards with cloth awnings. High roofs with roof ventilators and latticed clerestory windows

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Painted Ceilings with geometric patterns religious symbols or natural images. Floors : mud plaster or brick paving ,white washed and painted with animal and plant themes. Bathrooms had stone flooring ,glazed tile flooring in palaces. Colours : Lighter at floors ,to strong and bright colours at ceiling. Bright red vertical jambs at openings with a strip of moulding . Faience: Egyptian faience is a non-clay based ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various blue-green colours . Sheet copper was also applied tor red cedar doors.

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Egyptian columns are typically based on natural plant forms later columns (i.e. in the Aegean and Greece) will be more abstract in design, based on geometry and ideal proportions …

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Ancient Egypt Antique Furniture Egyptian antique furniture provides almost the only surviving examples of actual ancient furniture. Egyptians believed that possessions could still be used in the afterlife, and items of furniture were buried with the dead in sealed tombs. In the hot, dry climate of Egypt, many items were preserved through the centuries to become fascinating and valuable museum pieces today. In some cases, the wooden furniture itself had rotted away, but it was possible to recreate it from the gold sheaths that decorated the original pieces.

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PERIOD: B.C. 1500-1400. Portions of legs and rails, turned as if by a modern lathe, mortise holes and tenons , fill us with wonder as we look upon work which, at the most modern computation, must be 3,000 years old, and may be of a date still more remote

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Old Kingdom Very little Old Kingdom furniture has survived and hence we must resort to wall paintings to gain pictures of it. Furniture from this period was divided into two groups: platform pieces such as benches, chairs, tables, beds, couches, and stools;, and boxes such as chests and cupboards. While there was some surface ornamentation in the form of gilding and carving most Old Kingdom furniture relied on shape, line, proportion, and texture for its decorative effect. Thrones and chairs featured carved lion-paw feet, beds were decorated with animal skins and colorful mats, giving us a clue to the importance that the ancient Egyptians placed on decoration, as well as comfort.

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The presence of stools, chests, footrests, small cabinets, small tables, and even vase stands, points to a fairly high level of organization in living arrangements, even at this early stage in the development of Egyptian culture. Four legged stools with animal shaped legs and sturdy square seats made from concave wood or woven or braided rushes were important items of the time.

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Later, in the second half of the Old Kingdom, chairs with arms and backs began appearing. Large size tables were rare. Egyptian furniture designs of this age often incorporated metal work. Also inlay was increasingly used, as well as relief carving, and gilding. Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom saw further development of earlier trends, with a marked sophistication evident. Decorative effects such as inlay, paint, gilt, and veneer became more prominent. Popular design motifs included figures of sacred animals such as cow heads, lion heads, and hippopotamuses. New Kingdom The Empire, or New Kingdom period, 1570 B.C to 1085 B.C, witnessed the growth of magnificent cities such as Thebes, with their grand temples, palaces, and tombs. Naturally the furniture produced during this period is on a similarly luxurious scale, and is also evidence of greater woodworking skill.

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The New Kingdom saw the Egyptians extend their empire to new lands from Nubia to the Euphrates River and this contact with foreign cultures seems to have had its effect on furnishings. In wealthy Egyptian homes chairs appear in greater abundance. Folding stools were richly painted in bright colors. Small, low tables were often woven from rush. Tutankhamun The discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamun in 1922 opened the world's eyes to some of the richness and elaborateness of ancient Egypt furniture. Reflecting the great wealth of King "Tut" the furniture to be found among his possessions was of an unprecedented grandeur. The dry Egyptian climate preserved for centuries wooden frame chairs and couches decorated with open relief carvings, and inlays and overlays of precious metals. Three dimensional carving adorned ivory headrests, small chests, used for storing clothes and household items, were also extravagantly finished.

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This elegant and precious game table composed of interlocking pieces is the largest of the four discovered in the annex of the tomb of Tutankhamun .

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Egyptian style furniture of the noble and upper classes spared neither cost nor craftsman's effort. Gold sheathing, ivory inlays, intricate marquetry , inset jewels and fine stones were used to decorate ancient furniture that was often carved to represent animal forms. Chairs sometimes had feet in the shape of lion's paws or crocodile feet; legs and feet were sometimes carved to simulate the legs of a gazelle. Egyptian furniture design commonly incorporated carvings of flowers, animals or birds. Stools Stools were the most common items of furniture in Egyptian homes , and it was the Egyptians who invented the folding stool. Since these were much used by army commanders in the field, they became a status symbol, and were often heavily carved and decorated. High backed chairs are seen in many paintings. These were supplemented with cushions for comfort. Both stools and chairs commonly had woven rush seats, which have long since disintegrated.

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Beds, Headrests Beds almost always had carved animal-like legs with hooves or paws. They were gently inclined so that the sleeper's head was elevated, and had a footrest. The wooden Egyptian headrests were probably covered with a cushion or other soft material. Chests, boxes and cabinets formed an important part of Egyptian bedroom furnishings. These were highly decorated and were designed for many different purposes: large chests for storing household items and linen, small compartmentalized ones for storing cosmetics, and miniature chests with sliding lids and drawers made to hold jewelry.

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Tables Tables were also an important item of Egyptian furniture. They were used for eating, writing and playing games. They were usually low and easily moveable. In many cases, the tops were decorated with marquetry or with inlaid ivory. Carved legs, gold sheathing and ivory inlays were used to decorate table legs. Home Decor Egyptian home decor was very elaborate. Colored ceilings, wall paintings, carvings, hangings, inscriptions and tiled floors were the background to ornate furniture and ornaments. Gold, blue, black, red and orange were popular colors in Egyptian room decor. Egyptian temple decor was even more elaborate, with rich furnishings and hangings, jeweled ornaments and heavy inscriptions.

Sumerian Civilization:

Sumerian Civilization Cuneiform Text: written language of wedge-shaped symbols The ancient Sumerians kept excellent records and lists of things. They listed their household goods. They listed their court activity. They listed their sales and purchases. They even kept a list of their kings that was updated from time to time, as new kings came to power.

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Sumerian architecture is probably the oldest serious architecture (not just building houses and barns) in the world. People living in the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers (modern Iraq) began to build really big, substantial buildings about 3500 BC . Because there's practically no building stone in this area, but there's lots of clay , Sumerian architects built their buildings out of mud-brick or fired brick. Sumerians imported copper ,tin, silver , gold and semiprecious stones Their stylized and repetitive decorative vocabulary had a strong impact on Islamic architecture Mud brick walls decorated with Mosaics, Sculpture, Relief carving and cast metal. Bitumen was used

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Building materials other than brick were used for sheathing, flooring, roofing, doors, and special applications. These materials include: The date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ) used for ceiling lintels The giant reed ( Fragmites communis ) used for roofing and rammed earth foundations Terracotta panels used for decoration Bitumen used to seal plumbing Espcecially prized were imported building materials such as cedar from Lebanon , diorite from Arabia , and lapis lazuli from India .. They were probably the first people to develop a potter's wheel , which of course made it much easier to make pots, bowls, jars, and so on.  They did not just make these utilitarian:  they decorated them, very often, with intricate and attractive designs.

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Egypt influenced lotus buds ,rosettes and fantastic composite images of part human and part animal creatures –especially bulls and lions with human heads and impressive wings. The tree of life motif with small animals on the branches. This also appears as relief sculpture on large mud brick walls, carved reliefs and sculptures. Later appears in Persia, India again in Renaissance and in the works of Frank Lloyd Wright. Pointed clay cones with coloured bases hammered into walls

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Peasant homes contained very little furniture. Middle class furnishing :Wood chairs with woven reed seats. Storage pieces of wood lattice. Sumerian homes: one to two stories. Single door no windows Long narrow rooms clustered around interior courtyards Palaces : were similar with many courtyards and hundreds Of rooms with white painted walls. Sometimes raised on brick faced earthen platforms. Rooms decorated : Highly stylized and brightly coloured decorative details and finsishes,including squares,rectangles,circles and stylized plant forms Furniture made of wood decorated with Bronze,silver,gold and inlays of ebony and Ivory. Turned legs were shaped on a turning lathe Coloured carpets were woven for floors and walls. um

Babylonian Civilization (2003-1171 BCE):

Babylonian Civilization (2003-1171 BCE) City of Baylon : Chief Center of Mesopotamia King Hammurabi ‘s golden age (1792-1750 BCE) Supported art and architecture Durable and beautiful glazed enamel tiles and bricks in bold colours were assembled into dramatic designs. Much of it destroyed

Assyrian Civilization:

Assyrian Civilization Established capital at Assur . Kingdom was extended to Syria,Palestine,Cyprus and parts of Egypt. Monumental palace in Nimrud was completed in 879 BCE. Seventy thousand guests. Decorated with stone reliefs of human headed winged lions and bulls and painted details. At Khorsabad the vast palace of Sargon was finished with rich decoration. And brilliantly coloured glazed tiles.

Ancient Near East: The Persian Empire:

Ancient Near East: The Persian Empire Founded by Cyrus the Great He Captured Babylon,Egypt and the Indus Valley Persian empire was the largest. Stretching from Mesopotamia andEgypt through what I now Iran to the Danube river in Germany and the Indus River in Pakistan. Skilled craftspeople from all over the Persian Empire helped to erect the great citadel at Persepolis (in what is now Iran). This vast ceremonial & administrative complex was built on a raised platform above palaces spread out on the surrounding plain. A monumental stairway ascends the platform on the west, edged by graceful, finely detailed parapets carved with repetitive motifs (distinctive forms, shapes or figures). The Apadana , a huge audience hall within the Palace at Persepolis, still has 13 of its 72 slender, fluted columns standing. These thin stone columns probably supported a relatively lightweight wooden roof. The brick walls are finished in brightly enameled tiles decorated with animals & flowers.

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The Throne Hall is also known as the Hundred-Column Hall for its closely spaced columns - each topped with capitals depicting a pair of bulls’ heads and forequarters - that support the ceiling’s wood beams. At other places in the palace, columns are topped with lions, unicorns, eagles, or griffins.

INDIA & PAKISTAN: THE INDUS CIVILIZATION (2300-1500 BCE)-:

INDIA & PAKISTAN: THE INDUS CIVILIZATION (2300-1500 BCE)- evidence of cotton cultivation and weaving in Pakistan as early as 5000 BCE. Cotton cloth, bronze needles, and terra-cotta spindles from 2500 to 1500 BCE indicate flourishing textile skills, stone figure from Mohenjo Daro dated 2000 BCE shows a man wearing a printed or embroidered fabric Red madder dye, also known as Turkey red, confirms the use of mordants , chemicals added to dye baths that enable cotton fibers to take color. Houses, stores, and workshops for Mohenjo Daro’s population of around 40,000 were organized into grids of streets with nearly identical rectangular brick houses. While the ancient Middle East flourished, a large urban society thrived in the Indus Valley communities of Harappa in Pakistan and Mohenjodaro in India

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houses had fired-brick walls and timber supports, excellent water supply and drainage systems and underground sewers. The upper part of Mohenjo Daro was a citadel with huge communal buildings, including a great bath for religious purification, a granary, and an assembly hall. By 2200 BCE, the Indus civilization expanded to fortified settlements in central and northern Asia, with walled towns in the south Urals and northern Kazakhstan. Aryan tribes arrived in northern India from central Asia around 1500 BCE and blended with native cultures. Their timber architecture is no longer standing today, but was re-created in later stone buildings Around 800 BCE, ironwork developed, and settlements grew into cities in the Ganges Plain and other areas.

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Europe, Asia and Africa continued to be tied together by trade and cultural exchange. By 1800 BCE, Trade goods found in frozen burials in the Altai Mountains in central and northern Asia include silk textiles from China, pile carpets from Europe and gold-covered wooden decorations for horses. Trade also carried new skills and ideas. Skilled craftspeople worked in bronze, and between 1300 and 1100 BCE, iron became increasingly prevalent throughout Europe and Scandinavia, as did tin and copper from central and southern Europe. Large urban centers were well established in northern India by 700 BCE. Indian architecture showed a Persian influence after Cyrus the Great’s invasion in 513 BCE, including the use of dressed stone, which is cut and finished on at least one surface. Around 500 BCE, Siddhartha Gautama left his aristocratic family, becoming known as the Buddha (the Enlightened One), and originating one of the world’s major religions.

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INDIA: THE MAURYAN EMPIRE (305 BCE - 180 BCE): The buildings and artworks of the early Mauryan dynasty in India show a high level of workmanship in woodworking. Houses and other structures built of burnt bricks had pillars, windows and stairs; walls were decorated with paintings of people, plants, birds and other animals, and scenes of mountains and the sea. Fortified walled cities with well-planned streets were divided into housing districts set aside for different social classes. Megasthenes , a Greek emissary to the Mauryan court, wrote a widely quoted account of the ancient city of Pataliputra , enclosed by its timber palisade with 570 towers and 64 gateways. The palace within had wooden pillars in its hypostyle halls ornamented with gold and silver foliage and birds. The adoption of Buddhism by King Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty around 260 BCE led to the expansion of cities and contruction of stone stupas (Buddhist structures containing relics of the Buddha or commemorating Buddhist saints) pillars, and palaces. Caves were carved into chaityas (religious halls) and decorated with sculpture. Mauryan pillars were shaped from larger masses of rock, and carved with the natural forms of animals and plants. Buddhist brick

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Buddhist brick and wood monastic centers were built at Sanchi and other places with dormitories, refectories (for dining), preaching halls, and libraries, and rest houses for pilgrims. Over one thousand caves were carved in rock, beginning around 150 BCE and continuing for 1000 years. Caves served either as religious living quarters called viharas , with individual cells around a central chamber, or as chaitya halls for worship. The carved-rock structures imitated wooden structures, depicting doorways with arched gables below pitched roofs and latticework, carved beams, and deeply arched barrel-vaulted ceilings. At Bhaja , one of oldest sites, load-supporting linear struts and brackets projecting from walls were chiseled in stone and original teak ribs still possibly reinforce the roof. A nave with 27 octagonal pillars is surrounded by two side aisles that form an ambulatory (a space for walking) around a small, rock-cut, 2000-year-old stupa . The Karli Chaitya Hall is the largest, at 124 x 46 ft. (37.8m x 14m).

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Over one thousand caves were carved in rock, beginning around 150 BCE and continuing for 1000 years. Caves served either as religious living quarters called viharas , with individual cells around a central chamber, or as chaitya halls for worship. The carved-rock structures imitated wooden structures, depicting doorways with arched gables below pitched roofs and latticework, carved beams, and deeply arched barrel-vaulted ceilings. At Bhaja , one of oldest sites, load-supporting linear struts and brackets projecting from walls were chiseled in stone and original teak ribs still possibly reinforce the roof. A nave with 27 octagonal pillars is surrounded by two side aisles that form an ambulatory (a space for walking) around a small, rock-cut, 2000-year-old stupa . The Karli Chaitya Hall is the largest, at 124 x 46 ft. (37.8m x 14m).

CHINA (2200 BCE -221 BCE)::

CHINA (2200 BCE -221 BCE): China developed writing around 1500 BCE . Historical Records, written by Sima Qian in the 1 st Century BCE, tells of Chinese rulers dating to the time of the Minoan civilization on Crete. ] . Walled cities with towers at their corners and elaborate gates were planned in grid patterns along a north-south axis (a central line between two points). South-facing wood-frame buildings with rectangular halls were supported by rammed earth foundations. Local rulers lived in palaces furnished with inscribed ritual bronze vessels, fine lacquered pieces, and delicate jade, metal and ivory ornaments, all of which were set in large gardens and hunting parks. remains show wide-spread silk production, beautiful carvings of jade (a very hard, notoriously difficult stone to work), and the living quarters of a privileged class of pottery workers The huge demand for bronze ritual vessels led to the invention of a system of mass production based on the use of the conveyor belt. The production of bronze during the Chou dynasty was supplemented by iron that was often ornamented with gold or silver. This wealth of information reveals an extreme cultural & architectural consistency over many centuries, with the elaboration of ornament & refinement of craft rather than stylistic innovation marking the passage of time. Independent states on the north China plain and in the Yellow River basin were ruled in various combinations under the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. Walled cities with towers at their corners and elaborate gates were planned in grid patterns along a north-south axis (a central line between two points). South-facing wood-frame buildings with rectangular halls were supported by rammed earth foundations. Local rulers lived in palaces furnished with inscribed ritual bronze vessels, fine lacquered pieces, and delicate jade, metal and ivory ornaments, all of which were set in large gardens and hunting parks. Very early archeological remains show wide-spread silk production, beautiful carvings of jade (a very hard, notoriously difficult stone to work), and the living quarters of a privileged class of pottery workers. By the 5 th century BCE, China had produced great literary and philosophical works & established an imperial education system. The huge demand for bronze ritual vessels led to the invention of a system of mass production based on the use of the conveyor belt.

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The 1 st Emperor’s underground burial chamber is reputed to have had stars & planets in pearls on a copper domed ceiling above a magnificent palace with copper pillars & great rivers of mercury. Ying Zheng’s famous burial site re-created the power of a Chinese feudal leader, with over 7000 life-size terra-cotta soldiers.

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Guided by the principle that the dead should be treated at least as well as the living, Han royal tombs were designed like houses, with side chambers and carved or painted windows, doors and roof tiles either carved into solid rock or built into pits. Tombs contained weapons, farm implements, domestic animals, lacquer (highly glossy and lustrous polished finish) accessories, and stacks of silk garments, from smooth and lustrous taffetas to brightly colored embroidered silks and gauzes. House models found in Han tombs range from multistory courtyard houses for the wealthy to simple dwellings on stilts in swampy areas. Interiors were detailed down so metal pots to kitchen stoves, with fish and kebabs ready to cook.

AFRICA :

AFRICA Kingdom Of Meroe One of the first major civilizations to emerge in Africa was the Kingdom of Kush also known as Ancient Nubia . This is one of Africa’s oldest civilizations with a history dating back to 3800 B.C.E , however it flourished between 1500 and 300 BCE. Egyptians depended on Kush for iron, gold, and for exotic goods like incense and ebony.

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The ruins of the Lion Temple at Musawwarat The roots of interior design establish architectural and decorative vocabularies that respond to local materials, climate, landscape, and culture. Across these differences, buildings take on characteristic forms that shelter inhabitants from extremes of weather or that open living spaces to the outdoors. Civilizations develop great skills in ceramics, glass, metal, stone, wood, and the textile arts, and spread these innovations through travel, trade and conquest. As time passes, the focus of interior design begins to shift from the vernacular, localized art forms to design concepts that consciously reference past and faraway cultures and complex ideological principles. The building’s interior form and treatment becomes a dominant element in architectural design.