BRYOPHyTA : BRYOPHyTA Structure
Reproduction Dr Ashok Bendre Characters : Characters How does the group Bryophyta differ from Thallophyta ?
Presence of multicellular and jacketed sex organs.
Formation of embryo.
Gametophytes and sporophytes morphologically distinct.
Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte. The Unique Features : The Unique Features 1. Also known as
Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
2. The first land inhabiting plants
3. Sporophyte remains attached to gametophyte Where do the Bryophytes occur ? : Where do the Bryophytes occur ? Mostly terrestrial
Aquatic Ricciocarpus natans Slide 5: Some are epiphytic Frullania on tree trunk Others are saprophytes : Others are saprophytes Cryptothallus mirabilis Buxbaumia aphylla
(liverwort) ( moss ) Gametophyte : Gametophyte Thallose Foliose
( Marchantia-Liverwort) (Fontinalis-Moss) Reproduction : Reproduction There are two methods
Antheridia & archegonia Sexual method : Sexual method Oogamous where male gametes are motile and the female ( egg ) is non-motile.
Male sex organ is a jacketed and multicellular structure
Female sex organ also has a jacket and is multicellular Antheridium : Antheridium It is made of
1. Multicellular stalk
2. Body has an
an outer wall (jacket) of
single layer of cells
androcytes and finally
( male gametes). Archegonium : Archegonium It consists of
Neck canal cells
Ventre canal cell
Egg cell Fertilisation & Embryo : Fertilisation & Embryo Fertilization requires water
Motile male gamete reaches archegonium, only one enters and fuses with the egg.
Fusion product called zygote that divides to form embryo ( diploid).
Embryo develops into a sporophyte- may or may not be differentiated.
Spores produced in sporophyte after meiosis in spore mother cells. Spore and its germination : Spore and its germination Spore is the first cell of new gametophytic generation.
Germinates to produce a new generation of gametophyte Classification : Classification Economic Importance : Economic Importance Act as soil binders and thus help check soil erosion.
Form one of the initial seres in plant succssion.
Sphagnum-Bog moss, peat
moss, turf moss, survives
acidic conditions, hyaline
cells retain water and hence
used as packing material Funaria – Life Cycle : Funaria – Life Cycle Systematic position
Kingdom - Plantae
Sub-kingdom - Embryophyta
Phylum - Bryophyta
Class - Bryopsida
Order - Funariales
Family - Funariaceae
Genus - Funaria Gametophyte of Funaria : Gametophyte of Funaria Foliose
Rhizoids – septa oblique
Axis –erect, branched
Leaves – spirally arranged, sessile Vegetative Reproduction : Vegetative Reproduction Fragmentation of primary protonema
Apospory Sexual Reproduction: Archegonium : Sexual Reproduction: Archegonium Archegonium consists of
1.6 vertical rows of neck cells
2.4 cover cells
3.Ventre consisting of
A ventre canal cell
An egg cell Sexual reproduction: Antheridium : Sexual reproduction: Antheridium Antheridium
It consists of
An outer wall made of single layer of cells
Androcytes which later form biflagellate antherozoids. Sexual Reproduction :Fertilisation : Sexual Reproduction :Fertilisation Requires water
Cells of archegonial neck disintegrate;the mucilage rich in sugar
Antherozoids attracted by sugar
One enters the ventre,fuses and forms zygote- the first cell of sporophyte Sporophyte : Sporophyte Zygote divides mitotically and develops into an embryo
Embryo grows and finally differentiates into a well developed sporophyte
It consists of
3. Capsule Sporophyte: The foot : Sporophyte: The foot The foot remains embedded in the gametophytic tissue
Draws water and minerals
Hence, sporophyte is partially dependent on gametophyte Sporophyte: The Seta : Sporophyte: The Seta It is a long stalk
Capsule at its tip
Twists when mature
Helps in spore dispersal Sporophyte : The Capsule : Sporophyte : The Capsule Capsule is made of
The sporophyte is covered with calyptra – remnant of ventre wall
( gametophytic). Capsule : Apophysis : Capsule : Apophysis Lower part of the capsule
Presence of stomata and chloroplasts allow photosynthesis.
Hence though foot derives water & minerals from gametophyte, food is produced in apophysis
Therefore, Sporophyte is partially independent or partially dependent on gametophyte. Capsule : Theca : Capsule : Theca Columella in the centre helps conduction.
Spore sac has spore mother cells which divide meiotically to produce haploid spores Capsule : The Upper Part : Capsule : The Upper Part After removal of operculum peristome is exposed
Peristome of Funaria has 32 teeth in two rows.
Outer 16 teeth show thick bands and are hygroscopic
Help in spore dispersal Capsule : The Peristome : Capsule : The Peristome Peristomeal teeth showing thick transverse bands and triangular shape Spore : Germination into Protonema : Spore : Germination into Protonema Spore is the first cell of the next generation gametophyte.
Germinates to produce form green filament called protonema typical of mosses only)
Later buds on protonema develop into leafy gametophyte Funaria: Life Cycle : Funaria: Life Cycle