Renewable_Energy_Sources (1)

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Renewable Energy Sources:

Renewable Energy Sources composed by Dragica Vasileska

PowerPoint Presentation:

In the last 100 years, the Earth warmed up by ~1° C 100 years is nothing by geological time scales!

PowerPoint Presentation:

Climate change due to natural causes (solar variations, volcanoes, etc.) Climate change due to natural causes and human generated greenhouse gases Can we predict the past?

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CO 2 Concentration, Temperature, and Sea Level Continue to Rise Long after Emissions are Reduced 100 years 1,000 years Sea-level rise due to ice melting: several millennia Sea-level rise due to thermal expansion: centuries to millennia Temperature stabilization: a few centuries CO 2 stabilization: 100 to 300 years CO 2 emissions CO 2 emissions peak 0 to 100 years Today

The possibility / likelihood of global warming is disturbing …:

The possibility / likelihood of global warming is disturbing … … but there may be a bigger problem! Chu

PowerPoint Presentation:

Consumption of Energy Increased by 85% Between 1970 and 1999 By 2020, Consumption will Triple

World production of oil and gas is predicted to peak within 10 - 40 years:

World production of oil and gas is predicted to peak within 10 - 40 years 2010

PowerPoint Presentation:

Energy conservation and efficiency can buy time (a factor of ~2) but the fundamental problem remains

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Electrical generation Switch from petroleum to coal and natural gas Why has hydroelectric declined? When did nuclear go up?

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Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for Coal 125 1300 Petroleum 5 50? Natural gas 5 50? Oil shale 0 2500 Conventional reactors 3 15 Breeder reactors 115 750 Fusion 10 6 to 10 9 Geothermal surface 0.2 60 deep rock 0 600 Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for an indefinite period. Tidal energy 0.1 Organic Waste 0.1 Photosynthesis 0.23 Hydropower 0.14 Wind Power 5 Solar radiation 740 Estimates of renewable energy

Today: Production Cost of Electricity:

(in the U.S. in 2002) 1-4 ¢ 2.3-5.0 ¢ 6-8 ¢ 5-7 ¢ Today: Production Cost of Electricity 6-7 ¢ 25-50 ¢ Cost, ¢/kW-hr Courtesy Nate Lewis 0 5 10 15 20 25 Coal Gas Oil Wind Nuclear Solar Cost

Energy Costs:

Energy Costs Brazil Europe $0.05/kW-hr www.undp.org/seed/eap/activities/wea Courtesy Nate Lewis

PowerPoint Presentation:

Potential Sources of Energy when Fossil Fuels Run Out Nuclear Fission Magnetic Plasma Confinement, Inertial Fusion Waste & Nuclear Proliferation Nuclear Fusion 10 TW = 10,000 new 1 GW reactors: i.e., a new reactor every other day for the next 50 years

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Solar, Wind and Water We do not know how to store electrical energy on a massive scale

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Geothermal Heat near surface of the earth = geysers, volcanoes, hot springs

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Photosynthesis Photovoltaic and electricity to chemical H O O H 2 2 2 sc M e sc e M CO Sugar H O O 2 2 2 Solar to Chemical Energy Semiconductor/ liquid junctions

Energy gained in corn ethanol production :

Energy gained in corn ethanol production

Total CO2 emissions:

Total CO 2 emissions

From Summary of Renewable Fuel Options (NCEP):

From Summary of Renewable Fuel Options (NCEP) “Unlike corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol has potential to achieve near-zero net carbon emissions. Cultivation of cellulosic feedstocks requires very low energy inputs and, if sustainably managed, the carbon released during fuel combustion is reabsorbed by the growth of new feedstocks.”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Use heat to make steam to turn turbine for electrical generation Note: deep hot waters are corrosive to best to inject clean water in a closed system and bring it back to the surface as steam. Geothermal Energy in More Details

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In U.S., much done on public land = cheap Very little potential in east and mid west

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World wide distribution of volcanos, hot springs, etc. Japan, Iceland,New Zealand big users of geothermal.

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Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot everywhere if you go down far enough.

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Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump down water to make steam.

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Hydropower in More Details

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Hydropower = dams Not much used in world, why??

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Norway, Zambia, Ghana big users

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Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia

Problems with hydroelectric:

Problems with hydroelectric Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns Hard to build dams in populated river valleys Siltation of dams – limited life.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Tidal Power In areas of large tides Anywhere – build offshore dam

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Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!

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Tidal power anywhere No dam – but a turbine. Problems: Corrosion Navigation Appearance Amount of energy available is low Best tides are near poles – away from people.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Banning Pass Wind Power in More Details

Wind Power Generation:

Wind Power Generation

PowerPoint Presentation:

Best wind location = Aleutian Islands, why no wind development there?

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Best U.S. localities Midwest, mountains And coastal areas.

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Netherlands = coastal development

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England = off shore

Wind energy problems :

Wind energy problems Location – near population center Bird migration – Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity (intermittent supply)

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Solar Energy in More Details 1. Solar Thermal

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At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine

Solar Resource for a Concentrating Collector:

Solar Resource for a Concentrating Collector

Big Plants:

Big Plants

2. Solar Photovoltaics:

2. Solar Photovoltaics

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths:

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = Big plants Centralized production Soft = Decentralized units per household

Big Plants:

Big Plants

Decentralized:

Energy efficient house; wind power on roof. Solar panels for heat and electricity. Decentralized

PowerPoint Presentation:

Solar electricity generation

PowerPoint Presentation:

Solar water heating solar air heating

Solar house problems:

Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.

Solar house economics:

Solar house economics Add $16,000 to price of house Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs 15 years to break even Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in 1986 City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not trust solar?

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