Gender & Health Girl Child & PCPNDT

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Gender & Health Girl Child and PCPNDT:

Gender & Health Girl Child and PCPNDT State Institute of Health & Family Welfare, Jaipur

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What is common in all of them?:

What is common in all of them? They were/ are Girls 3 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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4 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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India is one of the few countries where selective sex gender bias exists till today. 5 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Why ?...... Not allowed to born Discrimination Violence Out of school Child labor Simply…….. 6 6 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Do you know :

Do you know Child Sex ratio is declining 10 Million Girls are missing in India 110 million + children not in school, 60 %are girls Secondary school enrollment in the developing world Girls only 41%, boys 53 %(1999). 90 percent of the rural female labor force are called "housewives" and excluded from the formal definition of economic activity. 7 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Globally….:

Globally… . Women work 35 hours more than men every week Women produce 80 percent of the food, but receive less than 10 percent of agricultural assistance (1995). There is no country in the world where women's wages are equal to those of men (2000) Only 9 % women were heads of state or government.(2000) India: women constitute 82% of those in charge of stocking crops and 70% to 80% of those in charge of cattle milking 8 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Women’s share:

Women’s share SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 9 12% 10% 66% 1%

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10 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 90% of household work 29% 2/3 of 876 M illiterates

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11 Rape: Every 54 minute Molestation: Every 26 minute Kidnapping: Every 23 minute Cruelty: Every 30 minute Eve teasing: every 51 minute Dowry death: Every 102 minutes Criminal offence: every 7 minute

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1 million do not see their first birthday Every sixth girl child's death is due to gender discrimination 1 out of 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 4 53% of girls in the age group of 5 to 9 years are illiterate. 12 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Violence-in woman’s life cycle :

Violence-in woman’s life cycle Child Marriage Dowry Unwanted Pregnancy Rape Trafficking Honor Killing 13 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Everyday, 6000 girls are genitally mutilated - more than 200 000 per year (2000). Every year in India, 5000 brides are murdered or commit suicide because their marriage dowries are considered inadequate. (2000) In the US, one in five women will be victims of rape in their lifetime. A woman is raped every 3 minutes. 14 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Incidence of Crime Against Women & Girls ( India ):

Incidence of Crime Against Women & Girls ( India ) Source: Crime in India statistics 2010, NCRB 15 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Why save child:

Why save child A H a p p y G i r l Child is the Future A Beti A Friend A wife A mother A grand Mother……. Girl From Sita … to Saina ; we have a legacy 16 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Social Issues:

Social Issues Mother breast feed boys longer than girls Nutritional & medical neglects Daughters are perceived as liability Dowries paid at the time of marriage 17 17 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Incidence of Crime Against Women/Girls ( India V/S Raj.):

Incidence of Crime Against Women/Girls ( India V/S Raj.) Source: Crime in India statistics 2010, NCRB 18 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Sex Ratio ?:

Sex Ratio ? Indicates gender balance Assesses women’s status Females per 1000 Males in the population. Internationally: number of males per 100 females . Child Sex ratio: sex ratio in 0- 6 years. 19 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 yrs.):

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 yrs.) Source: Census of India 20 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender v/s Sex:

Gender v/s Sex Sex" : Biological and Physiological characteristics that define men and women. "Gender“: refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes "Male" and "Female" denote sex "Masculine" and "Feminine" are gender 21 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Biological and Social differences :

Biological and Social differences Sex differences Anatomical & Physiological Anat., Phys., and Genetic susceptibilities Anat., Phys., and Genetic resistance and immunities Gender Differences Roles and responsibilities Access and control Cultural influences and expectations Subjective identity 22 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Women get sicker, but men die Quicker 23 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Inequality –Global burden:

Gender Inequality –Global burden Labour Market Empowerment Reproductive Health 24 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender bias can damage poor women’s health at all ages:

Gender bias can damage poor women’s health at all ages 25 25 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender and the Health Related MDGs:

Gender and the Health Related MDGs MDGs identified as “health related” include Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Women and girls are over represented among the poor, 70% of the poor in the world are women. Allocation of food and nutrition often biased against women and girls; young girls suffer brunt of malnutrition 26 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender and the Health Related MDGs:

Gender and the Health Related MDGs Goal 4: Reducing child mortality Child health and well-being, including nutritional health tied to the health, and mental health of their mothers. Goal 5: Improving maternal health Young girls are still being married off before they are physically and emotionally mature Link between education of girls and initiation of child bearing, number of children, attendance at antenatal clinics, and where deliveries are had 27 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender and the Health Related MDGs:

Gender and the Health Related MDGs Goal 6: Combating HIV and AIDS, Malaria and TB There is a breakout session on HIV and AIDS and gender Women more vulnerable to malaria infections, but interventions focus on intermittent treatment in pregnancy Financial security Women are the caring, whether sick of not 28 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender and the Health Related MDGs:

Gender and the Health Related MDGs Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability Access to safe drinking water and improvement in the lives of slum dwellers are the targets Goal 8: Global partnership for development Access to affordable medicines, often not engendered Access to social protection and employment 29 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender and the Health Related MDGs:

Gender and the Health Related MDGs Although Goal 2 on education is not considered to be ‘health related’, health of a household is directly related to the educational attainment of the mother Goal 3: on gender equity is also integral to women’s health; the social position of women, violence against women issues, trafficking, early marriage, and other harmful traditional practices 30 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

How does son preference affect women’s desire for children in Rajasthan:

How does son preference affect women’s desire for children in Rajasthan 31 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Female & Child Sex Ratio-INDIA:

Female & Child Sex Ratio-INDIA 32 Source-www.censusindia.gov.in- SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Sex Ratio- States of Empowered Action Group:

Sex Ratio- States of Empowered Action Group 33 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution Source-www.indiastat.com

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34 SIHFW:an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Female & Child Sex Ratio-Rajasthan:

Female & Child Sex Ratio-Rajasthan 35 Source- www.censusindia.gov.in SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

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36 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Highest Child Sex Ratios-Districts:

Highest Child Sex Ratios-Districts 37 Lowest Child Sex Ratios-Districts Source- www.censusindia.gov.in 37 37 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Sex Ratio (0-6 Year)Rural & Urban-Rajasthan:

Sex Ratio (0-6 Year)Rural & Urban-Rajasthan 38 Source-http://censusindia.gov.in SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Selected Indicators -Rajasthan:

Selected Indicators -Rajasthan 39 Indicators Total Male Female Child Sex Ratio (0-6 year) Literacy 67.06% 80.51% 52.66% Death Rate 6.7 7.2 6.2 IMR 55 52 57 Sex ratio (Female per 1000 males) 926 883 Source- SRS Dec.2011 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution Total 221 cases have been filed in the court in Rajasthan

Causes For Declining Sex Ratio:

Causes For Declining Sex Ratio 40 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution Patriarchal society Gender Discrimination Son preference Dowry

Consequences of Declining Sex Ratio:

Consequences of Declining Sex Ratio Social Consequences Increases of Sex related crimes like- Rape, abduction, bride selling, polyandry Prostitution, sexual exploitation etc. Health Related Consequences Increase cases of STD & HIV/AIDS Physical and Psychological disorders 41 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

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Is This The Future……? 42 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Legal action to stop Female Feticide:

Legal action to stop Female Feticide Medical termination of Pregnancy Act,1971 (amended in 2001) Pre natal Diagnostic Techniques (regulation and Prevention of Misuse ) Act,1994 The Pre-conception and Prenatal Diagnostic techniques (prohibition of sex selection )Act,2 003 43 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique ACT:

Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique ACT In 1988 Maharashtra became the first in the country to ban pre- natal sex determination Enacted on Sep.20,1994 at National level Amended in 2003 44 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Key points of the ACT,1994:

Key points of the ACT,1994 Technique use only for detecting genetic or metabolic disorder No person communicate the sex of the fetus by word, sign or in any other manner Constitution of Central Supervisory Board , Appropriate authority & Advisory Committees 45 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

PC-PNDT (Prohibition of Sex Selection)Act,2004:

PC-PNDT (Prohibition of Sex Selection)Act,2004 Prohibit the sex of the fetus and advertisement related to determination of sex All the technologies of sex determination including this Act Signboard is mandatory for all ultrasonography units that detection of the sex of the fetus is illegal. Ultrasound scanning machines have to be registered 46 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

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Manufactures should be inform about the clinics &practitioners to whom the ultrasound machinery has been sold. Maintenance of proper records 47 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

When Can The Medical Professional Use PC&PND Techniques :

When Can The Medical Professional Use PC&PND Techniques Age>35 Years-the incidence of congenital fetal malformation increase. Previous history of spontaneous abortion Exposure of radiation, Drugs, Infection & Chemicals 48 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Where can these test be conducted?:

Where can these test be conducte d? Genetic counseling Center Genetic Clinic Genetic Laboratory All premises should be registered under the Act . 1844 Sonography Centers Registered in Rajasthan Source :DM&HS 49 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Who can conduct these tests?:

Who can conduct these tests? Medical geneticist Gynecologist Pediatrician Sonologist /Radiologist 50 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Violation of the Act:

Violation of the Act If an advertisement  to provide the services of any kind of sex selection is published If a clinic using the pre-conception and pre natal diagnostic techniques is not registered under the PC&PNDT Act. Registration certificate need to be displayed publicly If any person has got sex selection of his or her unborn child done 51 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Contd.:

Contd. If medical professional has communicated the sex of unborn child to his patient If a clinic not maintained the mandatory records under the Act. If any person is compelling a pregnant women to under go sex selection done If any body is assisting or facilitating the process of sex selection 52 Source-pndt.gov.in SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Indian Penal Code, 1860:

Indian Penal Code, 1860 Section 312 Without analyzing the threat to the life of women Section 313 Without the consent of the women Section 314 Trying to cause miscarriage and thereby causing death Section 315 An act done to prevent a child from being born/ or born alive concealing the birth of a child Section 316 Act resulting in death of an unborn child Section 317 Mother or father abandoning the child Section 318 Secretly disposing body of child/ intentionally 53 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Forms:

Forms S.no . Form Details 1 Form A Application for registration or renewal of registration 2 Form B Certificate of registration 3 Form C Rejection of application for grant/ renewal of registration 4 Form D Maintenance of records by genetic counseling centre 5 Form E Maintenance of records by genetic laboratory 6 Form F Maintenance of records in case of a pregnant woman by genetic clinic/ ultra sound clinic/ imaging centre (declaration by pregnant woman) 7 Form G Consent 8 Form H Maintenance of permanent record of application for grant/ rejection of registration SIHFW: an ISO 9001: 2008 certified institution 54 54

Where we can lodge a complaint?:

Where we can lodge a complaint? State Level- Joint Director of Health and Family Welfare. District level - Civil Surgeon / CMO Block level- Chief health officer / Ward health officer / Medical superintendent 55 http://www.hamaribeti.nic.in Toll Free Number: 1800-110-500 Source-pndt.gov.in SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Punishments:

Punishments First offence Subsequent offence Service provider Imprisonment (3yrs .); penalty (Rs.10000); registration cancelled (5 yrs.) Imprisonment (5yrs.); penalty (Rs.50000); registration cancelled (permanently.) Service seeker Imprisonment (3 yrs.); penalty (Rs. 50000) Imprisonment (5 yrs.); penalty (Rs. 100000); Advertiser Imprisonment (3 yrs.); penalty (Rs. 10000) An offence under the PCPNDT Act is cognizable, non- bailable and non-compoundable. 56 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Schemes for Girl Child 57 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Balika Sambal Yojna Balika Samradhi Yojna National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (FDR Scheme) Free Bicycles Gargi Puruskar etc. 58 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Mukhya Mantri Balika Sambal Yojana:

Mukhya Mantri Balika Sambal Yojana 1st April,2007 Aim – To promoting girl Child and provides economic support to her after the18 years of age. Eligibility- Any couple under goes sterilization operation after one or two female child (no male child) Benefit- Rs. 10,000/- in the name of each female child. The maturity amount payable after the girl child attains age of 18 Years. 59 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Balika Samridhi Yojana :

Balika Samridhi Yojana Introduction: Launched by Govt. of India 15 th Aug,1997 by WCD Objectives:- To change family and community attitudes towards the girl child at birth and towards her mother. To improve enrolment and retention of girl children in schools. To raise the age at marriage of girls. To assist the girl to undertake income generating activities. 60 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Beneficiaries- The mothers of newborn girl child received a grant of Rs. 500/- cash from the Government. Annual Scholarships (Rs.300 to 1000)to the girl child for attending school. Target Group - Girl child belonging from BPL families. Source-http://wcdhry.gov.in 61 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL):

National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) a component of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) July 2003; GOI. Objectives: To reach the “Hardest to Reach” girls, especially those not in school. Benefits- Provides additional support for enhancing girl’s education 62 SIHFW: an ISO9001: 2008 certified institution

Efforts by Districts:

Efforts by Districts District Pali Beti Bachao Abhiyan Dati Sumangla Yojana On birth of daughters Distribution of sweets Greetings to mother from administration Free clothes distribution (to mother and child) Free air journey Girls Regularly going to govt. school Brilliant student from rural background SIHFW: an ISO 9001: 2008 certified institution 63

Dati Sumangla Scheme :

Dati Sumangla Scheme Launched :10 Nov ,2010 Main features related to girl child First child after two yrs of marriage – Kisan Vikas Patra of Rs. 2100/- for girl child (Rs. 1000/- cash to Mother) After 3 yrs second girl child Kisan Vikas Patra of Rs. 5100/- for girl child (Rs. 1000/- cash to Mother) SIHFW: an ISO 9001: 2008 certified institution 64

Related innovations:

Related innovations District Bundi Improving access to safe ID Monitoring health network through SMS SIHFW: an ISO 9001: 2008 certified institution 65

Strategies undertaken by Government:

Strategies undertaken by Governmen t Gender Mainstreaming Gender Budgeting 66 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Gender Equality Absence of discrimination - on the basis of a person's sex - in providing opportunities, in allocating resources and benefits or in access to services Gender Equity Fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men. 67 67 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Mainstreaming:

Gender Mainstreaming Continuous, dynamic process of integrating a gender perspective into each stage of the development process including policy, legislation, planning, budgeting, programmes and schemes, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, auditing, research and advocacy 68 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Why Needed?:

Why Needed ? Equity : more fair outcomes possible if gender impacts visible Efficiency: women and men respond differently to policies Interdependence between paid and unpaid sectors matters 69 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Programmatic /Operational Gender Mainstreaming:

Programmatic /Operational Gender Mainstreaming How health problems affect women and men of all ages and groups differently Focus on women’s empowerment Examine how gender norms, roles and relations influence male behaviour and health outcomes Promoting gender equality Adopt a broad equity approach that may lead to inequities Provide an evidence base for effective and efficient health planning, policy-making and service delivery 70 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Institutional Gender Mainstreaming:

Institutional Gender Mainstreaming Recruitment and staff benefit policies, such as: Establishing work-life balance Sex parity and gender balance in staffing Equal opportunities for upward mobility Mechanisms for the equal participation of male and female staff in decision-making procedures 71 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Budgeting :

Gender Budgeting Translating Government gender commitments into budgetary commitments . Strategy for ensuring Gender Sensitive Resource Allocation and a tool for engendering macro economic policy Entails affirmative action for empowering women 72 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Covers assessment of gender differential impact of Government Budgets and policies (Revenue and Expenditure). Enables Tracking and Allocating resources for women empowerment Opportunity to determine real value of resources allocated to women 73 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Three categories of GB analysis:

Three categories of GB analysis 1 : Targeted gender-based expenditures Women’s health programmes Special education initiatives for girls 2: Equal employment expenditure on govt. employees Training for clerical officer or women managers Provision of crèche facilities 3: General budget expenditure judged for impact on male and female Who needs adult education & how much spent on it? Who are users of contraceptive services? 74 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

5 Steps in Gender Budgeting:

5 Steps in Gender Budgeting Step1 : Describe situation of women & men, girls& boys and different subgroups in the sector Step 2: Check whether policy is gender sensitive Step3: Check that adequate budget is allocated to implement gender-sensitivity policy Step4: Check whether expenditure is spent as planned Step 5 : Examine impact of policy& expenditure 75 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

GB:Benefits:

GB:Benefits Improved accountability of governments and representatives Improved efficiency by ensuring that those who need it most benefit from public expenditures Improved transparency and reduced corruption Informed participation of women in planning and budgeting policies 76 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Budgeting Goals:

Gender Budgeting Goals Ensure collection and allocation of public resources advances gender equality Hold governments accountable to gender equity and women’s human rights 77 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Why are Gender Responsive Budgets Needed?:

Why are Gender Responsive Budgets Needed? Budget formulation process often leaves out women Women have less voice in economic and political debates Budget impacts on women go beyond paid economy 78 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Obstacles to Gender Budgeting and Mainstreaming Hidden, unpaid economy often not considered Few women politicians and policymakers Men’s needs treated as norm: gender typically ignored Challenges in creating guidelines on how to mainstream gender Access to information 79 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Challenge:

Challenge How do we translate all these commitments into budgetary commitments and administrative action ? How do we engender policies and programmes ? 80 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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What can be done Setting up of Gender Budgeting Cells (GBCs) in all Ministries/ Departments as focal points for mainstreaming gender Issued a Gender Budgeting Charter Gender Budget Statement reflecting budgetary allocations for programmes/ schemes that substantially benefit women. 81 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Holistic approach to Empowerment :

Holistic approach to Empowerment Education Skills Credit Marketing Asset base Health & Nut. Water & San. Technology Political Participation 82 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Institutional Arrangements Strengthening National Women’s Machineries National Mission for Empowerment of Women Rashtriya Mahila Kosh Engendering Institutions and Establishing of Gender Focal Points 83 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Evolution of Indian Initiatives 84 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Seventh FYP: Establishment WCD in HRD Ministry 27 major women specific schemes Eighth FYP: Ensure flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women Ninth FYP: 30% of funds in women related sectors Tenth FYP: Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting 85 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Action Areas:

Action Areas Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc. Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills Research/Technology for women Women in the work force Asset ownership by women Women as Entrepreneurs 86 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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Implementation of Laws like Equal remuneration Minimum Wages Factories Act Infrastructure for women like Water and sanitation at workplace Creches Working Women Hostels Transport services Security 87 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Budgeting From Policy to Outcomes:

Gender Budgeting From Policy to Outcomes process Product process Product process Product Policy formulation Policy statement Budget compilation Budget Expenditure on activities Outcomes Revenue collection Policy appraisal (Gender appraisal) Audit (Gender Audit) Budget appraisal (Budgeting for gender equity) 88 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Gender Budgeting in Union Budgets :

Gender Budgeting in Union Budgets Years No of Ministries ( No of Demands) Total Gender Budget (in Rs Crore) 2005-2006 9(10) 14378.68 2006-2007 18(24) 28736.53 2007-2008 27(33) 31177.96 2008-2009 27(33) 27661.67 2009-2010 27(33) 56857.61 2010-2011 28(33) 67749.80 2011-2012 29(36) 78251.02 Source: National Mission of Empowerment of Women, Ministry of Women & Child Development , GoI 89 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

Thank You :

Thank You For more details log on to www. Sihfwrajasthan.com or contact : Director-SIHFW on sihfwraj@yahoo.co.in 90 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution

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