Disaster management

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Disaster Management:

Disaster Management State Institute of Health & Family Welfare, Rajasthan

Disaster :

Disaster Latin word: Dis (Bad) Aster ( Star) Theory of anger of God Theory of Fury of Nature Since not under the control of humans ‘Philosophy of Fatalism’ changed to ‘Management of Disasters’ SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 2

Disaster=(Hazard + Risk)x Vulnerability:

Disaster=(Hazard + Risk)x Vulnerability SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 3

Hazard:

Hazard Potentiality of a physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life or property Characterized by its location, intensity, frequency and probability Could be natural or manmade Could be single, sequential or combined in origin and effect SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 4

Risk:

Risk Probability of harmful consequences or expected losses Death , injury, property, livelihood, economic activity disrupted or environment damage Hazard Risk Vulnerability and Capacity (HRVC)Analysis SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 5

Vulnerability:

Vulnerability Extent to which a community can be affected by the impact of a hazard Factors increasing vulnerability Poverty, lack of information, poor living conditions, overloaded or poorly maintained equipments, inadequate safety precautions Precede disasters, contribute to their severity and impede disaster response SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 6

Thus, Disaster is ..:

Thus, Disaster is .. Catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, Results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of property, or damage to, or degradation of environment, Beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area. (Source: National Disaster Act,2005). SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 7

When an Event is a Disaster::

When an Event is a Disaster: According to IFRC: any incident in which more than 5 persons are killed or 100 persons are injured is categorized as disaster SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 8

Forms of Disasters:

Forms of Disasters SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 9

PowerPoint Presentation:

Some Are Slow In Onset SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 10

Some Are Rapid In Onset:

Some Are Rapid In Onset SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 11

Man Plays A Role In Many:

Man Plays A Role In Many SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 12

Types Of Disaster:

Types Of Disaster Natural Disasters Man-Made Disasters Sudden Impact – earthquakes, tropical storms, tsunamis, volcanic Eruptions, etc. Industrial/Technological – fires, pollution, spillages, explosions etc. Slow-Onset – drought, famine, pest infestation, deforestation, etc. Complex Emergencies – wars ,civil- strife, armed aggression, etc. Epidemic Diseases – water borne, food borne, vector borne, etc. Others – transportations accidents, material shortages. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 13

Disaster Chain:

SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 14 Disaster Chain

India’s Key Vulnerabilities:

India’s Key Vulnerabilities Coastal States, particularly in the east coast states and Gujarat are vulnerable to cyclones, 4 crores hectare landmass is vulnerable to floods. 68% of net snow area is vulnerable to drought. 55% of total area is in Seismic Zone III-IV , and vulnerable to earthquakes. Sub Himalayan/ Western Ghat is vulnerable to landslides. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 15

PowerPoint Presentation:

16 Disaster Profile- India 1994-1998 - Rs 28,678 c rores 1998-2004 - Rs 47,464 crores 2005 - Rs 87,500 crores 2007 India China US No of Significant disasters 21 38 31 Victims 7.3 m 88 m 2.3 m Economic damages 3.3 bn US $ 13.5 bn US $ 5 bn US $ SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution Source: Disaster Management Authority

INDIA Economic Losses due to Disasters:

INDIA Economic Losses due to Disasters PERIOD Annual- Impact on People 1. Losses in lives - 4334. 2. People affected - 30 Million. 3. Houses lost - 2.34 Million. 50 % 139 % Losses in Thousand Crores 112,000 Cr Annual- Financial Losses Percentage of Central Revenue (for relief) – 12%. 311 % SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 17

Vulnerable group:

Vulnerable group Elderly people Women Children SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 18

Trend of Disasters in World (2001-2010) :

Trend of Disasters in World (2001-2010) SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 19 Source : World Disaster Report-2011

PowerPoint Presentation:

National Disaster management Authority-2010 India’s Proneness to Drought SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 20

PowerPoint Presentation:

National Disaster management Authority-2010 India’s Proneness to Earthquake SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 21

India : :

India : Total no. of people reported killed (2001-2010) 63,611 Total no. of people reported affected (2001-2010) 563,498,367 Total no. of people reported killed 2010 2,234 Total no. of people reported affected 2010 4,790,863 SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 22 Source :World Disaster Report-2011

Potential Consequence of Disaster:

Potential Consequence of Disaster Consequences Floods Earthquake Droughts Complex Emergencies Deaths Few Many Many May be many Severe injuries Few Overwhelming Few May be many Disease outbreak Possible (water borne) Possible Possible ( due to malnutrition) Common (all types) Food shortages Common Rare Overwhelming Common Mass displacement Common Not common Common Common SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 23

PowerPoint Presentation:

“If sufficient number of management layers are superimposed on each other, it can be assured that disaster is not left to chance.” Norman R Augustine SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 24

Disaster Risk Management :

Disaster Risk Management • Disaster management- Effective organization, direction and utilization of available counter-disaster resources. • Modern view – Pre-disaster measures to prevent or mitigate disasters are called Risk Management. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 25

Traditional Model-DM Cycle :

Traditional Model-DM Cycle Disaster management -number of phased sequences of action or a continuum. Can be represented as a cycle. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 26

PowerPoint Presentation:

Disaster Risk Management SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 27

Expand Contract Theory:

Expand Contract Theory There is a series of activities that run parallel to each other rather than as a sequence. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 28

Expand Contract Theory:

Expand Contract Theory Prevention and Mitigation Strand Preparedness strands Relief and Respond Strand Relief and Rehabilitation Strand Disaster time SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 29

Disaster & Nodal Ministry:

Disaster & Nodal Ministry Disasters Ministries/Departments Earthquakes and Tsunami MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD Floods MHA/Ministry of Water Resources/CWC Cyclones MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD Drought Ministry of Agriculture Biological Disasters Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Chemical Disasters Ministry of Environment & Forests Nuclear Disasters Ministry of Atomic Energy Air Accidents Ministry of Civil Aviation Railway Accidents Ministry of Railways SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 30

National Disaster Management:

National Disaster Management 31 Govt. Of India cabinet committee on management of natural calamities High Level Committee cabinet committee on security NDMA NEC State SDMAs SECs DISTTs DDMAs local authorities Communities national planning commission national crises management committee MHA ministries and dept of Govt. of Indi a armed forces central paramilitary forces NCC, civil guard,home guard NIDM national disaster response force National Disaster Mitigation resource centre ministries and dept of states State police State disaster response force Fire services Academic Institution Scientific Institutions Technical Institution Professional bodies NGOs Corporate Sector SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 31

National Response Mechanism:

National Response Mechanism Union Cabinet National Crisis Management Committee Agriculture Minister Secretary (Agriculture) State Relief Commissioners Central Relief Commissioner Indian Meteorological Department Central Water Commission Other Depts Crisis Management Group SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 32

SOP for Disaster Management (GOI-2010):

SOP for Disaster Management (GOI-2010) Phased approach Preparedness Early warning Response Relief Restoration SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 33

Preparedness/ Mitigation:

Preparedness/ Mitigation A three-pronged approach to be adopted to undertake mitigation measures: Building mitigation measures into all development projects. Initiating of national level mitigation, in high priority areas, with the help of the Central Ministries and Departments concerned and the States. Encouraging and assisting State level mitigation projects. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 34

Training, Simulation and Mock Drills :

Training, Simulation and Mock Drills Efficacy of plans and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) - tested and refined through training, seminars and mock drills. The NDMA - assist the states/UTs in these areas and conduct mock drills in different parts of the country. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 35

Community Preparedness :

Community Preparedness The greatest number of lives can be saved during the first few hours following a disaster, before help from the outside arrives. If a community is in a state of preparedness -reduce the impact of the disaster. Multi- sectoral activity for sustainable results. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 36

Early Warning:

Early Warning The nodal agencies, for specific natural disasters, will identify technological gaps and formulate projects for their upgradation. All States should provide to India Meteorological Department – required infrastructure for upgradation/ establishment of meteorological observation systems. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 37

Response:

Response The existing and the new institutional arrangements need to ensure an integrated, synergized and proactive approach in dealing with any disaster. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 38

Role of National Executive Committee (NEC) :

Role of National Executive Committee (NEC) Disaster specific guidelines will be formulated by NDMA, NEC. Give directions to the concerned Ministries/ Departments of the Govt. of India/State Governments – Regarding measures to be taken by them in response to any specific threatening disaster situation or disaster. NEC will coordinate response in the event of any threatening disaster situation or disaster. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 39

State Response Mechanism (Rajasthan):

State Response Mechanism (Rajasthan) Disaster Management Authority Headed by Chief Minister Consist of following members Minister, Finance Minister, Water Resources Minister, Rural Development Minister, Health Minister, Urban Development Minister, Home Minister, Agriculture Minister, Science & Technology Minister, Revenue Minister, Transport Minister, Planning Chief Secretary Addl. Chief Secretary, Development Secretary, DM&R (Member Secretary) SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 40

Disaster Management Committee – Executive Committee :

Disaster Management Committee – Executive Committee Headed by Chief Secretary, Secretaries of the Department as members:- Addl. Chief Secretary, Development Home Finance Energy Public Works Urban Development Medical & Health Public Health and Engineering & Ground Water Secretary to Chief Minister Secretary, Irrigation SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 41

Disaster Management Committee – Executive Committee:

Disaster Management Committee – Executive Committee Secretary, Agriculture Secretary, Animal Husbandry Secretary, DM&R (Member Secretary) Any of the following members may be asked to attend the meeting as and when required by the Chairman: Station Commander, Army and its nominee General Manager, Railway Director General of Police Director General, Civil Defense Director HCM RIPA In charge, Centre for Disaster Management BSNL SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 42

State Disaster Management Plan:

State Disaster Management Plan Under supervision of the Chief Secretary prepared by each Nodal Department. Plan include aspects of mitigation, preparedness and response. Annual updation of the plan is institutionalized at the state level by all departments. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 43

Prevention :

Prevention The existing Town & Country Planning Act, Industrial Master Plan and Land use Zoning Norms evaluated to make amendments to decrease our vulnerability. To ensure safe planning enforcement, Department of Disaster Management is a member of all the regulatory bodies in the State. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 44

Mitigation:

Mitigation All State Plan Schemes will have mitigation in terms of their reference and Department of Disaster Management will be consulted before all plan schemes are formulated and implemented. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 45

Preparedness and Response :

Preparedness and Response The Department shall prescribe the frequency of updation of the plans and also the frequency of drills to be organized to rehearse the plan from time to time. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 46

Relief and Recovery :

Relief and Recovery The Department is Nodal agency for administration of relief and recovery programs including management of Calamity Relief Fund. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 47

District Level Response Mechanism:

District Level Response Mechanism District Disaster Management Authority headed by Collector. Members Zila Panchayat Zila Parishad Different line departments NGOs District Red Cross and others Function : for coordinating all disaster management activities at the district level. In times of disasters, Distt . Collector constitutes a District Relief Committee to oversee management of relief SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 48

Urban Areas :

Urban Areas Disasters -managed by Municipal Commissioner and Chief Executive Officer under the overall supervision of District Collector. It will be responsible for putting in place techno-legal regime and its compliance, awareness raising . SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 49

Blocks and Tehsil Level :

Blocks and Tehsil Level Block and Tehsil level Disaster Management Committees -headed by SDO and tehsildars as the case may be. The Committee will look into all the aspects of disaster management including mitigation preparedness, response and relief. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 50

Panchayat Level:

Panchayat Level The Panchayat will also constitute a Panchayat Disaster Management Team consisting of officials and non-officials and organize training for them to be able to discharge their duties properly. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 51

Village Level:

Village Level The Disaster Management Committee of a village led by gram sabha . This Committee responsible for awareness generation, warning dissemination, community preparedness plan, adoption of safe housing practices and organizing and cooperating relief in post disaster situations. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 52

PowerPoint Presentation:

Research in areas affected by earthquakes indicates that single parent families, women, handicapped people, children and the aged are particularly vulnerable social groups. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 53

Disaster Management In Health Sector:

Disaster Management In Health Sector The Emergency Medical Relief Division of the Directorate General of Health Services in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ( MoHFW ) is the technical unit meant for the management of crisis situations . SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 54

Role of Epidemiology in Disasters:

Role of Epidemiology in Disasters Identify major health problems Determine extent of disease Identify causes of disease and risk factors Prioritize health interventions Monitor health trends Evaluate impact of health programs SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 55

Reasons Of Health Related Problems:

Reasons Of Health Related Problems Population density Population displacement Disruption of pre-existing sanitary services Disruption of normal public health programs SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 56

Displacement And Displaced Persons:

Displacement And Displaced Persons Displacement of population due to: Escape the effects of conflict and violence Find food, water, shelter Seek protection from persecution Escape the devastation of an environmental disaster. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 57

Impact of Displacement:

Impact of Displacement Effect of Displacement on displaced persons Effects of displacement on the host population · Loss of livelihood/increased poverty · Hunger, malnutrition, and starvation · Lack of shelter · Lack of heating and cooking fuels · Lack of potable water · Spread of communicable diseases · Overcrowding · Loss of land tenure · Long-term psychosocial trauma · Breakdown of traditions, common values and norms · “Community” functioning is disrupted Initially · Competition for essential resources and services · Food shortages and increases in food prices · Reduced wages · Impeded transportation and/or movement in the area · Civil unrest · Interruption of local commerce due to black market economies · Increased pollution due to overburdened water and sanitation systems · Spread of communicable diseases · Overcrowding · Long-term psychosocial trauma Later · Local commerce increases and booms SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 58

Disaster and Health:

Disaster and Health Injuries from the event Environmental exposure after the event : Sanitation options, personal hygiene, water supply etc. Malnutrition after the event Mental health consequences : “ Disaster syndrome” Communicable disease outbreaks Excess Non communicable disease mortality SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 59

Communicable Disease Outbreaks:

Communicable Disease Outbreaks Limited evidence that they pose a major risk; but may occur due to Ecologic changes Population density changes Population displacement Disorganized health services Interruption of health services SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 60

Mental Health:

Mental Health Stressful Event Normal Mental Health Status Protective Factor Protective Factor Stressors Stressors Mental Health Services Strain on coping mechanism Protective factors overweigh stressor Improvement in mental health Mental health disturbed mildly, moderately or severely SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 61

Likely Relative Impact of Health Measures On A Community:

Likely Relative Impact of Health Measures On A Community SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 62 Disease Burden Time (months) Curative care only Safe water + enough food Above + sanitation ,shelter Above +preventive health public health SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 62

Health Alert Network:

Health Alert Network A nationwide integrated information and communication system managed by Center for disease control and prevention (CDC), is used as a platform for distributing health alerts, prevention guidelines and other information. SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 63

Should Disaster Strike ...:

Should Disaster Strike ... Be Prepared SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 64

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU For more details log on to www. sihfwrajasthan.com or contact : Director-SIHFW on sihfwraj@yahoo.co.in Thanks for being patient SIHFW: an ISO 9001:2008 certified Institution 65