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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Isolation Precautions From National Guide Lines By: DR.ABD ELRAHMAN SAMEH

What is isolation?:

What is isolation? Isolation is creating barriers between patients with particular infection(s) and other people , eg staff and other patients .Or in other wards it is : Isolatig the patient in a single cubicle or in a room withen suit facilities.

Why isolation?:

Why isolation? The aim of isolating a patient is to prevent the spread of commuinicable diseases.

When isolation? :

When isolation? Decision of isolation taken only when the patient has one or more organisms included in the list of the epidemiologically important or communicable diseases.

Elements of transmission of m.o.:

Elements of transmission of m.o . Source of infection Susceptible host. Mode of transmission (our concern)

Routs of transmission of infections:

Routs of transmission of infections Direct and indirect contact Droplets Airborne Common vehicle Vector born

Routs of transmission of infections from infected hospital patients::

Routs of transmission of infections from infected hospital patients : Hands of HCP( the most common route). Contact with contaminated instruments. Exposure of the respiratory tract fluids. Enviromental factors(dust , fluids) and skin scales.


Here, our concern are infections transmitted by contact, droplet and airborn routs The following are exampels of infections ;

Infections transmitted by contact:

Infections transmitted by contact Respiratory syncytial virus. Disseminated herps simplex. Strept and staphylococcal infections . MRSA.andVRS . Multiresistant gram negative bacteria. Clostredium difficile diarrhea. Chicken pox

Infections transmitted by droplets;:

Infections transmitted by droplets; Pneumonic plague. Influenza German measles.

Airborne infections;(small droplets):

Airborne infections;(small droplets) It is dispersed by air reaching the alveoli of susceptible host: Measeles Smallpox. Varicella zoster. Tuberculosis.

Airborne infection (large droplets):

Airborne infection (large droplets) These droplets do not remain suspended for long time and need close contact to be transmitted: Meningiococcal meningitis. Pertussis (whooping cough) Multidrug-resistant streptococcus pneumonia. Chicken pox ( varicella ).

N.B.By interruptig mode of transmission we can prevent infections:

N.B.By interruptig mode of transmission we can prevent infections By : Standard Precaution Transmission –based precaution

How to prevent transmission of infectios:

How to prevent transmission of infectios Standard precautions Applied to all patients Because m.o . are likely present in patients of recognized or unrecognized infections. Still needed to be employed even for patients placed on transmission based precautions Transmission based precautions Applied for patients with documented or suspected infections which are epidemiologicaly imortant pathogens that need additional precautions than S.P.

What is Standard precautions ?:

What is Standard precautions ? It is the foundation of protection for personnel aginest exposure to infectious agents during all patient care activity. It reduce transmission of blood-borne pathogens and other pathogens present in body substances.

Standrd precautions:

Standrd precautions Hand hygiene(the most imortant ) Covring cuts. Personnel protective equipments(PPE) Safe use of sharps. Monitoring staff health. Removing spills of blood and body fluids. Cleaning and disinfection of patient care equipments. Disposing waste safly .

Standard precautions continue::

Standard precautions continue: Collecting and reprocessing linen safely. Cleaning the enviroment . Dishes glasses,cups , and eating utensils. Deceased patients.

Standard precautions applied to::

Standard precautions applied to: 1-Blood 2-All body fluids ,secretions and excretions whether containing visible blood or not. 3-Non intact skin. 4-mucous membranes and contaminated surfaces or equipments.

Transmission –Based precautions:

Transmission –Based precautions Designed only for patients that are known or suspected to be infected with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens.

There are three types of transmission-based precaution:

There are three types of transmission-based precaution Airborne precautions(prevent transmission by air current) Droplet precautions(prevent transmission by small ,large droplets) Contact precaution(prevent transmission by direct ,indirect contact) Combination of air-borne and contact precautions

Some common features of the three types of precautions::

Some common features of the three types of precautions: HAND HYGIENE: Washing hands with antseptic preparation ,dried throughly with dsposable paper towel, or use waterless alcohol hand rub. After touching patient or potentially contaminated items. After removing gloves. Befor taking care of another patient.

Common features continue::

Common features continue: VISITORS: all visitors must seek advice from the nurse-in-charge of the ward befor visiting the patient. LOCATION:A single room wih a wash hand basin and an en suit toilet.

About air borne precautions:

About air borne precautions Patient should be under negative airflow ventillation . Care providing staff should have immunity againest varicella and measels . High efficiency mask should be worn in case of patients with known or suspected tuberculosis. In case of death , the dead body should be labeled with {DANGER OF INFECTION}

Some important notes befor isolating patients:

Some important notes befor isolating patients Medical practitioners are Obligated to inform District Surveillance Unit about patients suffering or supposed to be suffering from notifiable communicable diseases. Notification should occur on Clinical Suspesion and not dependent on lap. Diagnosis.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Isolation precautions have negative psychological aspects of separation from others and additional equipments of care. If more than one patient is affected( e.g in outbreaks) they should be nursed together in one room ( CohortIsolation ).


I Isolation room draft

PowerPoint Presentation:

Space befor isolation room

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nurse with a patient in isolation room.

Closed window isolation room :

Closed window isolation room

Cohort isolation :

Cohort isolation

الحمد لله رب العالمين:

الحمد لله رب العالمين

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