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Premium member Presentation Transcript PASTORALISTS IN THE MODERN WORLD: PASTORALISTS IN THE MODERN WORLD -BY- SHANTANU MAHTO 9 TH CINTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION In this chapter we will read about nomadic pastoralists who are neglected in modern society . Further we will see how pastoralism is important in societies like India and Africa. We will also read about the way colonialism impacted their lives and how they coped with the pressure of modern society . This chapter will first focus on India and then Africa.PASTORAL NOMADS AND THEIR MOVEMENTS: PASTORAL NOMADS AND THEIR MOVEMENTSPowerPoint Presentation: IN THE MOUNTAINSGUJJAR BAKARWALS of Jammu and Kashmir: GUJJAR BAKARWALS of Jammu and Kashmir Are great herders of goat and sheep. Migrated here in the 19 th century in search of pastures for their animals. When the mountains were covered with snow they lived with herds in low hills of Shiwalik range.PowerPoint Presentation: Several house holds came together for the journey in April by crossing Pir Panjal passes and entered the valley of Kashmir . This journey is known as KAFILA .GADDI shepherds of Himachal Pradesh: GADDI shepherds of Himachal Pradesh They also had similar cycle of seasonal movement like gujjar bakarwals. They too spent their winters in low hills of Shiwalik range. By April they moved to north and spent summer in Lahul and Spiti.PowerPoint Presentation: When the snow melted they moved on to higher mountain meadows. By September they began their return movement . On the way they stopped in Lahul and Spiti reaping their summer crop and sowing their winter crop. They continued this every year.GUJJAR of Garhwal and Kumaon: GUJJAR of Garhwal and Kumaon They came down to dry forest of BHABAR in winter and went up to high meadows-the BUGYALS in summer. Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to Uttar Pradesh in search of good pastures.PowerPoint Presentation: This pattern of cyclic movements between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas including the Bhotiyas , Sherpas and Kinnauris. All of them had top adjust to seasonal change and make effective use of available pastures in different places. This continuous movement also allowed pastures to recover and prevent its over use.PowerPoint Presentation: ON THE PLATEAUSDHANGARS of Maharashtra: DHANGARS of M aharashtra Their number was about 467,000 in early 20 th century and most of them were shepherds some blanket weavers and others buffalo herders. The dhangar shepherds stayed in central plateau of Maharashtra during monsoon which was semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil so they sowed Bajra.PowerPoint Presentation: In October they harvested Bajra and moved to konkan. The kharif crop would have been cut and so Dhangar manured the field. In return the Konkani peasants gave rice to them.PowerPoint Presentation: ON THE PLAINSBANJARAS: BANJARAS Banjaras were another well known group of graziers. They were to be found in villages of U.P Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. They sold plough cattles to the farmers in the exchange of grain and fodder.PowerPoint Presentation: ON THE DESERTRAIKAS: RAIKAS Raikas lived in desert of Rajasthan. Rainfall in this region was uncertain. In these areas no crop could be grown. By October when they ran out of pastures and water, they moved out in and returned in the next monsoon. 1 group of Raikas known as Maru Raikas –herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat.PowerPoint Presentation: So we see that life of pastoral groups was sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors. They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area a nd know where they could find water and pastures. They combined a range of different activities- Cultivation Trade Herding to make their living.PowerPoint Presentation: COLONIAL RULE AND PASTORAL LIFEEFFECTS OF COLONIAL RULE ON PASTORALISTS: EFFECTS OF COLONIAL RULE ON PASTORALISTS Under colonial rule the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movement were regulated and the revenue they had t pay were increased their agricultural stock declined and their trades and crafts were adversely affected.CHANGE-1: CHANGE-1 The colonial state wanted to transform all grazing lands in to cultivated farms. By expanding cultivation it could increase its revenue collection and could produce more jute, cotton, wheat and other agricultural produce required in England. They regarded all uncultivated land as unproductive and waste land.PowerPoint Presentation: From mid 19 th century Waste Land Rules were enacted in parts of India. By these rules uncultivated lands were given to individuals and were turned into cultivated lands. In most areas the land taken over were actually used by pastoralists for grazing. So this meant the decline of pastures and a big problem for pastoralists.CHANGE-2: CHANGE-2 By mid 19 th century various Forest Acts were also being enacted. Through these Acts some forests which produced commercially valuable timber were declared ‘reserved’ and no pastoralists was allowed to enter here.PowerPoint Presentation: Other forest were classified as ‘protected’ and in this pastoralist were allowed to graze but their movement were severely restricted. These forest changed the lives of the pastoralist very severely.CHANGE-3: CHANGE-3 British officials were suspicious of nomadic people because they changed their place of residence every season in search of good pastures for their herds. The colonial government wanted to rule a settled population as such population was easy to identify and control.PowerPoint Presentation: In 1871 the colonial government in India passed Criminal Tribe Act. By this Act many communities of craftsman, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribe. Once this Act came into force, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements and they were not allowed to move without a permit.CHANGE-4: CHANGE-4 To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possible source of taxation. So tax was imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even on animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on pastures.PowerPoint Presentation: In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in mid 19 th century. After this increased taxation pastoralists had to give a heavy tax. And therefore their problems were even more increased.PASTORALISM IN AFRICA: PASTORALISM IN AFRICAPowerPoint Presentation: MAASAIINTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Let us now move to Africa where over half the world’s pastoral population lives. Even today 22 million Africans depend on some kind of pastoral activity. They include communities like Bedouins , Berbers , Maasai , Somali , Boran and Turkana .PowerPoint Presentation: They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkey and they sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some also earn through trade and transport. We will look at one African pastoral community- MAASAI They were- 300,000 in Southern Kenya & 150,000 in Tanzania.PROBLEMS FACED BY MAASAI: PROBLEMS FACED BY MAASAI1- PROBLEMS OF GRAZING LAND: 1- PROBLEMS OF GRAZING LAND One of the problems faced by Maasai is the continuous loss of their grazing lands. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half by European Imperial power. The best grazing lands were taken over for white settlements. At last Maasai lost about 60-70% of their pre-colonial lands.2- BORDERS ARE CLOSED: 2- BORDERS ARE CLOSED In 19 th century African pastoralists could move over vast areas in search of pastures. From late 19 th century the colonial government began imposing various restriction on them. Maasai and other pastoral groups were forced to live within special reserves.PowerPoint Presentation: They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. They were now subjected to various restrictions.3- WHEN PASTURES DRY: 3- WHEN PASTURES DRY Droughts affect the life of pastoralists everywhere. When rain fails and pastures are dry, cattles are likely to starve and die. Since Maasai could not shift to places where pastures were available in large amount therefore a large number of Maasai cattlse died.PowerPoint Presentation: In 1930 Maasai in Kenya possessed- 720,000 cattle 820,000 sheep & 171,000 donkeys And in just two years of drought,1933 and 1934, over half the cattle in Maasai reserve died.4- NOT ALL WERE EQUALLY AFFECTED: 4- NOT ALL WERE EQUALLY AFFECTED In Maasailand not all pastoralists were equally affected by change in the colonial period. In pre-colonial times Maasai society was divided into two categories- Elders WarriorsPowerPoint Presentation: Elders formed the ruling group and settled disputes whereas Warriors protected their tribes . The British then appointed the chiefs of different subgroups of Maasai who were responsible for affairs of the tribe. The chiefs became rich with regular income and many of them began living in towns and enjoy the life.PowerPoint Presentation: This led to the social changes in Maasai which occurred at two levels- The traditional difference based on age between the Elders and Warriors was disturbed. A new distinction between the wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION So we see that pastoral communities in different part of the world are affected by the changes which are taking place in the modern world. New laws and new borders affect the patterns of their movements. With restriction on their movement pastoralists find it difficult to move in search of pastures.PowerPoint Presentation: As pasture land disappears grazing becomes a problem. Times of droughts become times of crises, when cattle die in large numbers. With these ever increasing problems yet, the pastoralists try and live in these conditions and fight the difficulties that come in their way.PowerPoint Presentation: At last I salute these hard working and never say die pastoralists. And therefore these pastoralists are important and necessary.THANK YOU: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.