Lecture 2 - Theory and research

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Lecture 2: Theory and Research:

Lecture 2: Theory and Research

Testing Your Common Sense :

Testing Your Common Sense True/ False When faced with natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes, people panic and social organization disintegrates. True/False It is more dangerous to walk near topless bars than fasts-food restaurants. True/False Most people on welfare are lazy and looking for a handout. They could work if they wanted to. True/False Because bicyclists are more likely to wear helmets now than just a few years ago, their rate of head injuries has dropped. True/False Because they are more assertive, men tend to make more eye contact than women in face-to-face interaction.

All are False!:

All are False! Following disasters, people develop more cooperation and organization to deal with the catastrophe. The crime rate outside fast food restaurants is considerably higher, likely because topless bars have security. Less than 2% of welfare recipients are able bodied men. Most people on welfare are children, young mothers with limited skills, the elderly and people with disabilities. The average person stays on welfare for less than one year. Because bicyclists are more likely to wear helmets now , they are also more likely to take more risks because of the sense of safety helmets give them. Women make significantly more eye contact than men.

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology:

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Research – both quantitative and qualitative in nature is used to help create theories to explain the world. Each Approach is a Lens that helps us view the same aspect of the world a little differently

Symbolic Interactionism:

Symbolic Interactionism How People Use Symbols in Everyday Life Applying Symbolic Interactionism Changing meaning of symbols affects expectations

Slide 6:

George Herbert Mead (1863– 1931) is one of the founders of symbolic interactionism , a major theoretical perspective in sociology. He taught at the University of Chicago, where his lectures were popular. Although he wrote little, after his death students compiled his lectures into an influential book, Mind, Self, and Society.

Functional Analysis:

Functional Analysis Society is a Whole Unit Made Up of Interrelated Parts that Work Together Functionalism, Structural Functionalism Robert Merton and Functionalism Manifest Functions Latent Functions Latent Dysfunctions Applying Functional Analysis

Conflict Theory:

Conflict Theory Karl Marx and Conflict Theory Conflict Theory Today Feminists and Conflict Theory Applying Conflict Theory

Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro:

Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro Functionalists and Conflict Theorists − Macro Level Symbolic Interactionists − Micro Level

A Research Model:

A Research Model Selecting a Topic Defining the Problem Reviewing the Literature Formulating a Hypothesis Choosing a Research Method Collecting the Data Analyzing the Results Sharing the Results

Research Methods (Designs):

Research Methods (Designs) Surveys Participant Observation (Fieldwork) Case Studies Secondary Analysis Analysis of Documents Experiments Unobtrusive Measures Deciding Which Method to Use

Surveys:

Surveys Selecting a Sample Representative Sample Random Sample Stratified Random Sample Neutral Questions Questionnaires and Interviews Establishing Rapport

Slide 16:

Improperly worded questions can steer respondents toward answers that are not their own, which produces invalid results.

Participant Observation (Fieldwork):

Participant Observation (Fieldwork) Researcher Participates Generalizability

Case Studies:

Case Studies Focus on a Single Event, Situation, or Individual

Secondary Analysis:

Secondary Analysis Analyze Data Collected by Others

Analysis of Documents:

Analysis of Documents Books, Newspapers, Diaries, Bank Records, Police Reports

Experiments:

Experiments Experimental and Control Groups Independent and Dependent Variables

Unobtrusive Measures:

Unobtrusive Measures People May Not be Aware They are Being Studied

Ethics in Sociological Research:

Ethics in Sociological Research Protecting the Subjects The Brajuha Research Misleading the Subjects The Humphreys Research

Trends Shaping the Fugure of Sociology:

Trends Shaping the Fugure of Sociology Sociology ’ s Tension: Research Versus Reform

Globalization:

Globalization Broaden our Horizons Consider Global Issues Universal Principles

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