Quality Circles : Quality Circles By : Ashok Sharma Mobile: +91-9911447464 Overview: Overview What are Quality Circles? How do Quality Circles work? How they can be used in an organization? Example & Activities Problems with Quality circles Summary of History & Practices What is QC?: What is QC? A way of capturing the creative & innovative power that lies within the workforce. Voluntary groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an area of responsibility. They agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss & solve problem related to work. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision making and problem - solving improves the quality of work. How do QCs work?: How do QCs work? Characteristics Volunteers Set rules & priorities Decision Made by consensus Use of organized approaches to problem solving. All members of QC need to receiving training Members need to be empowered Members need to have the support of Senior Management. How can they be used in an organization?: How can they be used in an organization? Increase productivity Improve Quality Boost employee morale Quality Circles - Origin: Quality Circles - Origin Defeat of Japan in 2 nd World war Socio- Economics reconstruction Severe Constraints of high population density Lack of natural resources, compulsorily dependent on import of fuel, food energy and raw materials required for industries. Solution was only to ‘Export’ For Export, you need superior quality Superior Quality comes through high technological investment Superior Quality also comes through small but continuous ways of working. The Pre-requisites for QCs : The Pre-requisites for QCs Belief that people will take pride & interest in then work if they experience autonomy and content over the decisions that affect them. Employees sense of belongingness A belief that each employee desires to participate in making the organization a better place Recognition of the importance of development of human resources. A willingness to allow people to volunteer their time & effort for the performance of the organization An involved & respected employee is a productive employee. Concepts of QC: Concepts of QC This is based on Human Resource is a key factor in Quality & Productivity It implies the development of skills, capabilities, confidence & creativity of the people Concepts of QC: Concepts of QC Through the cumulative process of Education Training Work Experience Participation Team work / Collective effort Sustaining the motivation Commitment Towards “ Work Excellence” Scope of Quality Circles: Scope of Quality Circles QCs are not limited to Manufacturing only QCs are applicable where there is scope for group based solutions of work related problems QCs are relevant for factories, firms, schools, hospitals, Universities, Banks, Research Institutes, Govt. Office, Homes etc.. Not limited to the narrow definition of Quality It is concerned with Total Customer Satisfaction Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM SOCIAL BELONGING SECURITY STIMULATION PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS The Role of QC’s in Meeting Individual Needs: The Role of QC’s in Meeting Individual Needs Type of need Ways in which the need can be met thro’ QC activity Stimulation QC’s provide important ways to stimulate thought and reduce boredom in work place. Security Through QC’s employees can demonstrate their value to the organization and improve productivity there by making important and necessary contribution to their jobs. Social belonging QC’s provide an accepted social structure. Team building & acceptance are part of QC training. Esteem Successful QC projects receive recognition and generate respect for the talent and expertise of the individual members as well as the team. Self Actualization QC’s combine opportunities to use knowledge, judgment and creativity, with the freedom to decide how to contribute. Quality Circles Structure: Quality Circles Structure Steering Committee Co-ordinator Q. C. Facilitator Q. C. Facilitator Q. C. Facilitator Circle Leader Circle Leader Circle Leader Circle Member Circle Member Circle Member The Process of Operation of Quality Circle: The Process of Operation of Quality Circle Problem Identification Problem Solution Problem Analysis Generate Alternative Solution Implement The Solution Present Solution to Management Prepare Plan of Action Select Best Solution Basic Problem Solving Techniques: Basic Problem Solving Techniques Brian Storming. Pareto Diagrams. Cause and Effect Analysis. Data Collection. Data Analysis. The tools used for data analysis are: Tables (b) Bar charts © Histograms Circle graphs (e) Line graphs (f) Scattergram (g) Control charts. Role of Quality Circle Member: Role of Quality Circle Member Keep focus at all the times on organizational problems/objectives related to the work. Not press for inclusion of personal problems. Demonstrate mutual respect. Offer views, opinions and ideas freely and voluntarily in problem solving. Attempt all meeting except when unavoidable. Contribute to finding solutions to problems. Contribute to implementing solutions. Attend training seriously with a receptive attitude. Acquire skills to contribute to the problem solving activities of the circle. Role of Quality Circle Leader: Role of Quality Circle Leader Conduct meeting and ensure participation by all members. Help in collecting data related to problems. Transmit QC suggestions to facilitator. Interact among themselves and facilitator beside their own group members. Present solutions/suggestions to management. Maintain relevant records of meetings. Ensure implementation of solutions by the group. Keeping the circles informed about status of previously submitted suggestions. Keeping the meeting positive and on track. Training circle members in group process and in the use of tools and techniques for generating ideas and problem solutions. Role of Facilitator: Role of Facilitator Co-ordinate the work of several QC’s through leaders. Serve as a resource to the group/circle. Arrange for expertise from other groups/agencies. Keep the circles on track and enthusiastic. Acquire skills through training programmes. Transfer skills to members of QC’s. Transmit proposals/solutions to management. Arrange for training of QC members. Provide feed back to members. Provide feedback to management. Maintain budgets and keep cost records. Help circles to provide presentation to management. The Facilitator should have the following qualities: The Facilitator should have the following qualities He must be able to train QC leaders and members in QC techniques. He must have leadership qualities and organizational abilities in participative management. He must have skills to motivate people maintain enthusiasm and keep QC’s on track. He must be able to express his ideas and QC philosophy both written and verbal. He must be able to plan, organise and conduct meeting and make presentation to management. He must have ability to contact and gain support from all levels of management. Launching of Quality Circles: Launching of Quality Circles Expose middle level executives to the concept and ask them if there are any area under their purview where they think the climate is conducive to the starting of quality circles. Explain the concept to the employees in such identified areas and invite them to volunteer as members of quality circles. Nominate Senior officers as facilitator for each area. Form a steering committee for directing the programmes’ activities in the organization. It establishes the objectives, policies, activities and composition of quality circles. It may consist of a Chief Executive as the chairman and the Departmental Heads as members along with facilitators from each area. Launching of Quality Circles: Launching of Quality Circles Arrange training of co-ordinators, facilitators in basics of QC approach, implementation, techniques, and operation. Later facilitator may provide training to circle leaders. Circle leaders and facilitator train the circle members. A meeting should be fixed by facilitators, preferably one hour a week for the quality circles to meet. Formally inaugurate the quality circles. Arrange the necessary facilities for the quality circle meeting and its operation. Advantage of Quality Circles: Advantage of Quality Circles The organization can accomplish one or more of the following advantages by establishing Quality Circle: Promote high level of productivity and quality-mindedness. Self and mutual development pf employees. Creating team spirit and unity of action. Increased motivation, job satisfaction and pride in their work. Reduced absenteeism and labour turnover. Developing sense of belongingness towards a particular organisation. Waste Reduction. Advantage of Quality Circles: Advantage of Quality Circles Cost Reduction. Improved communication. Safety improvement. Increased utilization of human resource potential. Enhancement in consciousness and moral of employees through recognition of their activities. Leadership development. Trained staff. Identifies work related problems and solves them effectively. Limitations of Quality Circles: Limitations of Quality Circles The overall productivity may decrease initially. A large investment of time and money may be required. The chance of errors increases initially. Over-expectation of some employees who are too excited initially may turn to disappointment and drop out. Quality circles may threaten traditional authority structure. Employees who are habituated to depend on their supervisors for direction and who have lost their initiative feel uncomfortable with Quality Circles. After circle implementation, a period of confusion may arise. This is because people experiment with new ideas, new skills and new roles. Changes in system and control may become necessary.