analysis of cosmetic


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Analysis of Cosmetics

Parameters necessary for analysis of cosmetics: 

Parameters necessary for analysis of cosmetics Assay method to find stability of ingredient. Checking proper color and odour spectrophotometrically . Viscosity by Brookfield visometer Loss of water and other volatile vehicle from cosmetic by GC. Particle size distribution by Light scanning microscopy Texture and greasiness is evaluated Particle contamination by optical microscopy Microbial contam ination by sterility testing Shelf time testing is done where product is stored in RT and tested at regular time interval


Objectives To maintain product quality within predetermined limits of acceptability. To identify causes of variations and eliminate them. To reduce cost of production and inspection. To predict quality changes and to prevent them as far as possible.

Classification of cosmetics: 

Classification of cosmetics According to body part it is used, Skin: powder, lipstick, creams, lotions Hair : shampoo, conditioner, tonics Nail : nail lacquers, lacquer removers Teeth : powder, paste Eye : eyeliner, mascaras, eye shadows According to function of cosmetic , Emollient preparation: cold cream, vanishing cream, foundation cream Cleansing preparation : creams, shampoo Decorative preparation : lipstick, eyeliners Deodorant/ anti perspirant : sprays, sticks, mouthwash Protective preparation: creams, powder

Analysis of cosmetics: 

Analysis of cosmetics Physical analysis Microbiological analysis Chemical analysis

Physical analysis LIPSTICK: 

Physical analysis LIPSTICK 1.Melting range : by capillary method 2.Aging stability : product stored at 40 o C, observe oil bleeding, crystallization of wax on surface 3.Perfume stability : product stored at 40 o C, bring temperature to RT and compare with Fresh lipstick 4.Oxidative stability : determine peroxide value after exposure to oxygen

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5.Surface anomalies : study surface defect eg . Crystal on surface, contamination by mould, fungi, formation of wrinkles, exudation of liquid subs and solid fatty 6.Softening point : not less then 55 o C. Ability of lipstick to withstand variation in climate. 7.Breaking point : done to determine strength of lipstick. Lipstick is held horizontally in a socket half inch above the base and weight is applied on half inch away from edge. Weight is increased at specific interval of time.(30 sec) and weight at which lipstick is broken , it is considered as breaking point .


NAIL LACQUER AND REMOVERS Non-volatile content : apply to flat surface evaporate at 105-110 o C weight of residual film Hardness : apply pressure mechanically to previous flat surface. Water resistance : measurement of water permeability of film. apply on surface and immerse in water and weight before and after immersion in water. Increase in weight is calculated. Viscosity : Smoothness : by microscope Drying rate : take product on flat surface, touch product with tip of finger to feel tackiness. Time taken for disappearance of tackiness is noted.(max 6min)

Powders : 

Powders 1.Dispersion of color : Spread powder on a white paper and check with magnifying glass. 2.Pay off : Adhesion with puff of a compact powder should be tested on skin. 3. Flow property: By angle of repose 4. Particle size and abrasiveness: Particle size by micro scope, sieve analysis, coulter counter. Abrasiveness by rubbing powder on a smooth surface and study effect by microscope. 5.Moisture content : GC or Karl Fischer 6.PH of aqueous solution:

Shampoos : 

Shampoos 1.Foam formation, nature and stability: Mix product with water,shake . Foam produced is studied. ROSE MILES FOAM COLUMN is used for measuring height and stability. 2.Viscosity : 3.Efffect on hair: “Half head technique”. 4.Effect on skin and eyes: By applying to animals 5.PH Between 6-9 6.Cleansing action : Mix 200 ml water and product. Place 5gm wool in grease . Sahke for 4 min at rate of 50 times a min.

Shaving preparation : 

Shaving preparation 1.Foam formation, nature and stability : 2. Skin senitization : Some of ingredient like antiseptic may cause irritation, sensitization or photo sensitization of skin. This is done by “PATCH TEST”. Place sample on cotton fabric and apply to arms, thigh or back.this patch is covered with cellophane and sealed with adhesive tape. Allow to remain on skin for 24-72 hrs. then observe erythema or not. 3.Stability : Effect of heat and light.

Sunscreen preparation: 

Sunscreen preparation Spectrophotometric evolution: To evaluate UV radiation absorption ability Sunscreen index : Evalution is of relative sunscreen activity. Done by extinction co efficient at 308nm and compare with other. 308 is peak wavelength for effective sunburn.

Tooth paste and tooth powder: 

Tooth paste and tooth powder Particle size: by microscopy or by sieving Abrasiveness : Teeth are brushed with paste or powder. Observe mechanically or radio active tracer technique. Consistency : Viscosity for paste and rheology for powder. 4. PH of Aqueous solution: Volatile matters and moisture: Specific amount of product taken in dish and dried till constant weight. Loss of weight indicates amount of moisture and volatile matters.

Hair tonics : 

Hair tonics 1.Antiseptic property : By in vitro, ant microbiological tests against some specific organism. 2. Stability test : Heat and light 3.Sensitivity test : Patch test

Microbiological analysis of Cosmetics: 

Microbiological analysis of Cosmetics Sample preparation for analysis For liquid : Take 1ml of liquid and dilute with 9 ml of Modified Letheen Broth ( MLB ) Solids and powder: Mix 1gm of sample, 2ml sterile Tween 80. disperse product with Tween 80. add 8ml sterile MLB , mix thoroughly. Waxy /fatty products(lipstick) : mix 10gm of sample , 2ml of sterile mineral oil , 10ml sterile Tween 20. Disperse it to form a paste. Add 78 ml sterile MLB . Mix thoroughly.

Methods for microbiological analysis: 

Methods for microbiological analysis Pour plate method Spread plate method Streak plate method Membrane filtration method As per Indian STD , bacterial count of cosmetic should exceed 1000 microorganism per 1 gm of cosmetic and there should not be any pathogen.

Chemical analysis of Cosmetics: 

Chemical analysis of Cosmetics GENERAL METHODS Determination of methonal in relation to ethanol or 2-propanol by GC. Determination of dichloromethane and 1,1,1 tricholoro ethane by GC. Determination of Chlorobutanol by GC. Determination of hexa cholorophene by GC. Determination of water by GC. Determination of propylene glycol by GC.

Deodorants and Antiperspirants: 

Deodorants and Antiperspirants Al and Zn by Gravimetric or by flame atomic absorption. Zirconium by colorimetric or by flame atomic absorption. Boric acid by ion exchange. Chlorides and sulphates by Gravimetric. Methanamine and urea by Titrimetric

Hair preparation: 

Hair preparation Quinine in Shampoo and in Hair Lotions by HPLC. Free sodium and potassium hydroxide by titration. Oxalic acid and alkaline salt by titration. Hydrogen peroxide by iodometric titration. Mercaptoacetic acid in hair straightening by iodometric titration or GC. Selenium disulphide as selenium in anti dandruff shampoo by atomic absorption.

Tooth paste: 

Tooth paste Chloroform and chlorates of alkali metals by GC. Total fluorine in dental creams by GC

Creams and Paste: 

Creams and Paste Nitrite by colorimetric

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