Ancient Mesopotamia FINAL

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Ancient Mesopotamia River Valley Project:

Ancient Mesopotamia River Valley Project Created By: Brennan Vogl

LOCATION:

LOCATION Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia refers to the Greek term ‘ between two rivers. ’ The Land in between the rivers was known as the Fertile Crest. The Fertile Crest is where the Mesopotamian civilization began. Today Mesopotamia is located in current day countries of Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey.

Map of Mesopotamia:

Map of Mesopotamia Euphrates River Tigris River Sumer

Mesopotamian Transportation (Land):

Mesopotamian Transportation (Land) Mesopotamians transported goods in many different ways such as by foot, donkey, cart, raft, coracle, river boat, and gulf boat. Merchants would often travel by foot if they had a short distance to travel. They would strap a leather sac to their back and forehead to carry goods. The most common mode of transport was by donkey.

Mesopotamian Transportation (Water):

Mesopotamian Transportation (Water) Mesopotamians transported goods in many different ways such as by foot, donkey, cart, raft, coracle, river boat, and gulf boat. Coracle was often used to transport goods up and down stream. The coracle was made of animal leather and bitumen (a kind of tar ) which made the coracle waterproof. The coracles would often transport fish, meat, grain, and reeds. River Boats were used to travel downstream. These boats were constructed of tightly woven reeds and then tied together with rope.

Mesopotamian Culture:

Mesopotamian Culture Mesopotamians had various festivals, ceremonies, and traditions. Festivals included weddings and funerals. Mesopotamians placed their dead in either a ceramic jar, or wrapped them in a rug or mat.

Mesopotamian Religion:

Mesopotamian Religion Mesopotamians were polytheistic, meaning they worshipped many gods. Some Mesopotamian gods include: An the god of the sky . Enki the god of fresh water . Inanna the goddess of love . Nanna the god of the moon . Utu the god of the sun and justice.

Mesopotamian Religion:

Mesopotamian Religion Mesopotamians constructed buildings to worship their gods called Ziggurats, which had many champers to worship in. Mesopotamians also carved stone statues that depicted their gods or goddesses.

Mesopotamian Buildings:

As stated prior one of the buildings built by the Mesopotamians that still stands today is the Ziggurat (a place of worship). In Mesopotamia they built walls, temples, and canals, these are some of the first works of engineering. One canal was used for 1,000 years before a new one was built. Some of these canals are still in use today. Mesopotamian Buildings

Mesopotamian Innovations:

Mesopotamian Innovations The first written language that we know of was invented by the Sumerians. Their writing was inscribed onto clay tablets. They would use a sharpened reed, which was then pressed into the moist clay. Most of the tablets discovered were pertaining towards government laws, but some of the tablets found have indicated a form of literature. The most distinct writing was the Hammurabi laws. The oldest wheel discovered was found in Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamian Government:

Mesopotamian Government The leaders in Mesopotamia included the king and the head priests. T hey were in charge of overseeing the nation, making laws, and worshipping of the gods. The king led the army into battle. Most of the time conflicts occurred between city-states . Under the king were the nobles. T hey owned slaves and land while yielding more authority than commoners and slaves. Commoners owned smaller amounts of land. Slaves owned no land and had very little rights.

Mesopotamian Weaponry:

Mesopotamian Weaponry Mesopotamian culture existed through the stone, copper, and bronze age. The primary weapons used included spears, javelins, maces, battle axes, and daggers. Broad swords were rarely seen in combat. Armor consisted of helmets and shields made of leather. Technological advancements would later lead to the development of metal armor. The biggest improvement to warfare was the invention of compound bows.

Works Cited:

" Mesopotamia." Ancient History Encyclopedia . Ancient History Encyclopedia, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.ancient.eu.com/Mesopotamia/>. Bertman , Stephen. "History Database Search - Home." History Database Search - Home . Facts On File Inc., 1 Jan. 2003. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.fofweb.com/History/HistRefMain.asp?iPin=MESP0803&SID=2&DatabaseName=Ancient+and+Medieval+History+Online&InputText=%22weapons+and+military+equipment+in+ancient+Mesopotamia%22&SearchStyle=&dTitle=weapons+and+military+equipment+in+ancient+Mesopotamia&TabRecordType=All+Records&BioCountPass=0&SubCountPass=1&DocCountPass=0&ImgCountPass=0&MapCountPass=0&FedCountPass=&MedCountPass=0&NewsCountPass=0&RecPosition=1&AmericanData=&WomenData=&AFHCData=&IndianData=&WorldData=&AncientData=Set&GovernmentData>. " kiraatika ." Global @ SLJ - . Tangient LLC, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. <https://sljglobal.wikispaces.com/kiraatika>. "Wix.com weapons and warfare created by msawers1234 based on Blank Top Navigation | Wix.com." Wix.com weapons and warfare created by msawers1234 based on Blank Top Navigation . N.p ., n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://msawers1234.wix.com/weapons-and-warfare#!__weapons-of-mesopotamia "Trade and Transport explore." Trade and Transport explore . The British Museum, n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/trade/explore/exp_set.html>. "Learning about Ancient Mesopotamian Religion and Culture." Learning about Ancient Mesopotamian Religion and Culture . SMSpromotions , n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.smspromotions.org/mesopotamian-religion.html>. "Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean." Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean . N.p ., n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.philipharland.com/Blog/2006/01/05/mesopotamian-gods-chaos-monsters-and-the-combat-myth-satan-2/>. "History of Ancient Sumer." History of Ancient Sumer . N.p ., 1 Jan. 2004. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/esp_sumer_annunaki04.htm>. Mays, Larry. "Water Encyclopedia." Irrigation Systems, Ancient . Advameg , Inc., n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Hy-La/Irrigation-Systems-Ancient.html>. "Ancient Scripts: Cuneiform." Ancient Scripts: Cuneiform . Lawrence Lo., 1 Jan. 1996. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.ancientscripts.com/cuneiform.html>. "World History." Early Humans . Alan Shawn Feinstein Middle School of Coventry, n.d . Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/MrMEarlyHumansProject/MrMEmergingSumerianCityStates.html>. "Ancient Mesopotamia: Science, Inventions, and Technology." Ducksters . Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.ducksters.com/history/mesopotamia/science_and_technology.php>. "Ancient Mesopotamia Pottery." , rock,potters wheel,Pinch potting, slab building . N.p ., 1 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.ancientmesopotamians.com/ancient-mesopotamia-pottery.html>. "Style and Design, SylvaC pottery vases 4693 based on Winged Bull designed from Persia, Mesopotamia, Assyria." Style and Design, SylvaC pottery vases 4693 based on Winged Bull designed from Persia, Mesopotamia, Assyria . Style and Design , 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.stylendesign.com/modern/G859.html>. Works Cited

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