Influence of Culture and Subculture on Consumer Behavior

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Influence of Culture and Subculture on Consumer Behavior:

Influence of Culture and Subculture on Consumer Behavior

What is culture ?:

What is culture ? Culture It is a detailed examination of the character of the total society, including such factors as language, knowledge, laws, religion, food customs, music, art, technology, work patterns, products, and other artifacts that give a society its distinctive flavor. In a sense, culture is a society’s personality. Culture is the sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serves to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.

Characteristics of Culture 1)Culture Satisfies Needs :

Characteristics of Culture 1)Culture Satisfies Needs Culture exists to satisfy the needs of people within a society. It offers order, direction, and guidance in all phases of human problem solving by providing tried and true methods of satisfying physiological, personal, and social needs. Similarly, culture also provides insights as to suitable dress for specific occasions (e.g., what to wear around the house, what to wear to school, what to wear to work, what to wear to church, what to wear at a fast food restaurant, or a movie theater). Cultural beliefs, values, and customs continue to be followed as long as they yield satisfaction. In a cultural context, when a product is no longer acceptable because it’s related value or custom does not adequately satisfy human needs, it must be modified.

2) Culture is socially acquired:

2) Culture is socially acquired We are not born with any cultural knowledge It is the society which teaches an individual its various cultures and norms of behaving in the society Our society plays a vital role in teaching its culture to an individual Sometimes people strictly follow their culture only because of the fear of the society

3)Culture is Dynamic:

3)Culture is Dynamic To fulfill the need gratifying role, culture continually must evolve if it is to function in the best interests of a society. The marketers must carefully monitor the socio culture environment in order to market an existing product effectively or to develop promising new products. The changing nature of culture means that marketers have to consistently reconsider: Why consumers are now doing what they do? Who are the purchasers and the users of their products? When they do their shopping? How and where they can be reached by the media? What new product and service needs are emerging?

4)Culture is Shared :

4)Culture is Shared Culture is viewed as group customs that link together the members of the society. Common language is the critical component that makes it possible for people to share values, experiences, and customs. Social Institutions transmitting the element of culture and sharing of culture Family : primary agent for enculturation Educational Institutions : imparts learning skills, history, patriotism, citizenship and technical training. Religious Institutions : Perpetuate religious consciousness, spiritual guidance, and moral training. Mass Media : wide range of cultural values.

5)Culture is Learned:

5)Culture is Learned At an early age, we begin to acquire from our social environment a set of beliefs, values, and customs that make up our culture. Anthropologists have identified three distinct forms of cultural learning: 1. Formal learning : in which adults and older siblings teach a young family member “How to behave”; 2 . Informal learning : in which a child learns primarily by imitating the behavior of selected others, such as family, friends, or TV stars. 3. Technical Learning : Which teachers instruct the child in an educational environment about what, how and why it should be done. Advertising can influence all three types of cultural learning's.

How Culture Is Learned? :

How Culture Is Learned? Culture is learned through :- Enculturation and Acculturation Language and Symbols Ritual

1) Enculturation and Acculturation :

1) Enculturation and Acculturation Enculturation : The learning of one’s own culture is known as enculturation eg ; when a mother teaches her child about their culture can be called as enculturation. Acculturation: The learning of a new or foreign culture is known as acculturation eg ; when an american tries to learn about indian culture would be called as acculturation.

2)Language and Symbols :

2)Language and Symbols To acquire a common culture, the members of a society must be able to communicate with each other through a common language. Basically, the symbolic nature of human language sets it apart from all other animal communication. A symbol is anything that stands for something else. Symbols can be verbal or nonverbal. Symbols may have several, even contradictory, meanings. Marketers use symbols to convey desired product images or characteristics. Price and channels of distribution are also significant symbols of the marketer and the marketer’s product.

3)Ritual :

3)Ritual A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time. Rituals extend over the human life cycle from birth to death. They can be public or private. It is often formal and scripted—i.e., proper conduct is prescribed. Important to marketers, rituals tend to be replete with ritual artifacts (products) that are associated with, or somehow enhance, performance of the ritual.

Subcultures :

Subcultures It is a distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society. A subdivision of a national culture that is based on some unifying characteristic . Members share similar patterns of behavior that are distinct from those of the national culture.

Relationship between culture and subculture:

Relationship between culture and subculture Sub cultural traits Of people belonging to Maharashtra Dominant cultural Traits of Indian Citizens Sub cultural Traits of people belonging to Gujarat

Sub Culture:

Sub Culture Categories Nationality Religion Geographic region Race Age Gender Occupation Social class Ethnicity Examples Indian Hindu, Muslim, Christian Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka Brahmin. Kshitriya , Shudra Child, Teenager, Senior citizen Male , Female Bus driver, mechanic, engineer. Lower, middle, upper. Similar values and customs.

Types of Subcultures:

Types of Subcultures Different subcultures are divided into various factors they are:- Age Region Gender Social Class

1)Age Subcultures:

1)Age Subcultures Consumers undergo predictable changes in values, lifestyles, and consumption patterns as they move through their life cycle. Four Major Age Trends:- Baby Youth Middle aged Elderly Consumer Behavior changes accordingly with the change in the age trend

2)Regional Subcultures :

2)Regional Subcultures Regional subculture is the culture practiced in different states of a country People have distinct lifestyles resulting from variations in climate, culture, and ethnic mix of people. Consequently, different product preferences exist.

3)Gender Subculture:

3)Gender Subculture The Subculture based on Male-Female divide is known as Gender Subculture. The needs and wants of men and women differ to a great extent. Accordingly, their buying habits also differ

4) Social Class:

4) Social Class Human Societies are socially stratified The roles performed by various people are valued differently Differentiation among roles and their relative evaluation leads to stratification of society. Social Classes are easily identifiable market segments which can be reached with relative ease since they have distinctively defined media habits. Consumer Behavior changes with the change in the social class

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