Mobile-Ad-hoc-Network

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networking,mobile,communication,capacity

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MANET Mobile ad-hoc networking: 

MANET Mobile ad-hoc networking Alok Pandey 108351

What is mobile ad hoc network?: 

What is mobile ad hoc network? Self configuring network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. No need for existing centralized infrastructure. Mobile NODES, Dynamic TOPOLOGY. Nodes- able to relay traffic since communicating nodes may be out of range. Routes between nodes may potentially contain multiple hops

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A Simple Ad Hoc Network Example Nodes or devices can join together to make up a simple ad-hoc network. Every device owes an equal status or designation in the network.

Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks : 

Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks Cellular Networks Ad-hoc Networks Fixed, pre-located cell sites and base stations. No fixed base stations, very rapid deployment. Static backbone network topology Highly dynamic network topologies, with multi-hop. Relatively favorable environment and stable connectivity. Hostile environment (losses, noise) and irregular connectivity. Detailed planning before base stations can be installed. Ad-hoc network automatically forms and conforms to change.

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A Comparison Example One organization, for example arranges a conference, and the attendees use their laptops or notebook computers to connect to the nearby computers and the Internet through the wireless router.

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A Comparison Example cont’d… A better solution to this kind of network will be an ad-hoc network in which the wireless router is replaced by a wireless computer that can well act as a wireless router. The computers communicate directly with each other.

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Mobile Ad-hoc Design Issues and Constraints Infrastructure-less Dynamically Changing Network Topologies Network Security Physical Layer Limitation Limited Link Bandwidth and Quality Variation in Link and Node Capabilities Quality of Service Network Scalability Network Management and Reliability Energy Constrained Operation

Ad hoc routing protocol : 

Ad hoc routing protocol ● An ad hoc routing protocol is a convention or standard that controls how nodes decide which way to route packets between computing devices in a mobile ad hoc network. ● Self starting and self organizing ●Multi-hop, loop-free paths ●Dynamic topology maintenance ●Rapid convergence ●Minimal network traffic overhead ●Scalable to large networks Routing protocol requirements

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Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols Ad-hoc Mobile Routing Protocols Proactive/Table Driven Protocols Reactive/On Demand Protocols Hybrid Protocols DSDV, WRF, STAR,OLSF<CGSR ABR, DSR, AODV,ACOR ZRP,ARPAM,OORP

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●Does not take initiative for finding routes ●Establishes routes “ on demand ” by flooding a query Pros and cons: ●Does not use bandwidth except when needed (when finding a route) ●Much network overhead in the flooding process when querying for routes ●Initial delay in traffic Re-active routing protocols

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Re-active routing

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Re-active routing

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Re-active routing

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●Routes are set up based on continuous control traffic ●All routes are maintained all the time ● 1.Neighbor/link sensing 2.Optimized flooding/forwarding(Multi Point Relaying) 3.Link-State messaging and route calculation Pros and cons: ●Constant overhead created by control traffic ●Routes are always available Pro-active routing protocols

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MULTI POINT RELAYING

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MULTI POINT RELAYING..

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MULTI POINT RELAYING..

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MULTI POINT RELAYING..

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MULTI POINT RELAYING..

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HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOL A mix of both proactive and reactive routing protocols Basic idea behind hybrid routing protocols is to use Proactive routing ( restricted to a small domain in order to reduce the control overheads and delays )in some areas of the network at certain times and, Reactive routing ( more bandwidth-efficient in a constantly changing network )for the rest of the network

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Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks No expensive infrastructure must be installed Multi-hop ad-hoc networks can reduce the power consumption of wireless device Quick distribution of information around sender I ncreased mobility and flexibility, as ad-hoc networks can be brought up and torn down in a very short time. More economical Short communication links reduces interference levels, increases spectrum reuse efficiency, and makes it possible to use unlicensed unregulated frequency bands.

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Many Applications Military environments - soldiers, tanks, planes Emergency operations - Disaster recovery - Search-and-rescue - Policing and fire fighting Civilian environments - Taxi cab network - Conference venues - Meeting rooms - Sports stadiums - Boats, small aircraft

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Conclusion After researching Ad-hoc networks in depth, they will be the future of wireless networking because they are, -practical -versatile -easy to use and inexpensive Performance suffers as the number of devices grows and large ad-hoc networks become difficult to route and manage. Time need to be devoted to achieve routing stability, and a few technical issues need to be solved before they become common place

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References http://ntrg.cs.tcd.ie/undergrad/4ba2.05/group11/index.html http://www.computingunplugged.com/issues/issue200407/00001326002 http://wiki.uni.lu/secan-lab/Ad-Hoc+Protocols+%28$28%29Classification%28$29%29.html http://www1.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cis788-99/adhoc_routing/index.html Andrew Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. Prentice Hall Professional Tech- nical Reference, 2002. Charles E. Perkins. Ad hoc networking. Addison-Wesley Publishing Com-pany, 2001. David B Johnson and David A Maltz. Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In Imielinski and Korth, editors, Mobile Computing, volume 353. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471373133.html http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2501.txt

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