Interpretation

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Essentials of 12 Lead ECG Interpretation : 

Essentials of 12 Lead ECG Interpretation EMS Professions Temple College

Topics : 

Topics Anatomy Revisited The 12 Lead ECG Device The 12 Lead ECG Format Waveform Components Lead Views

Anatomy Revisited : 

Anatomy Revisited RCA right ventricle inferior wall of LV posterior wall of LV (75%) SA Node (60%) AV Node (>80%) LCA septal wall of LV anterior wall of LV lateral wall of LV posterior wall of LV (10%)

Anatomy Revisited : 

Anatomy Revisited SA node Intra-atrial pathways AV node Bundle of His Left and Right bundle branches left anterior fascicle left posterior fascicle Purkinje fibers

The 12 Lead ECG Device : 

The 12 Lead ECG Device Device serves as a voltmeter measures the flow of electricity Unipolar vs Bipolar Leads

Bipolar Leads : 

Bipolar Leads 1 positive and 1 negative electrode RA always negative LL always positive Traditional limb leads are examples of these Lead I Lead II Lead III View from a vertical plane

Unipolar Leads : 

Unipolar Leads 1 positive electrode & 1 negative “reference point” calculated by using summation of 2 negative leads Augmented Limb Leads aVR, aVF, aVL view from a vertical plane Precordial or Chest Leads V1-V6 view from a horizontal plane

The 12-Lead ECG Format : 

The 12-Lead ECG Format Leads typically produced by devices used prehospital

The 12-Lead ECG Format : 

The 12-Lead ECG Format Fields not typically produced by devices used prehospital

The 12-Lead ECG Format : 

The 12-Lead ECG Format Device prints out 2.5 sec each of Leads I, II, III then switches to aVR, aVL, aVF then switches to V1, V2, V3 and then to V4, V5, V6 (varies by device) Device computer analyzes all 10 sec of all 12 leads but only prints 2.5 sec of each group

The 12-Lead ECG Format : 

The 12-Lead ECG Format The computer diagnosis is not always accurate!!!

The 12-lead ECG Format : 

The 12-lead ECG Format The computer IS very accurate at measuring intervals & durations

Waveform Components: R Wave : 

Waveform Components: R Wave First positive deflection; R wave includes the downstroke returning to the baseline

Waveform Components: Q Wave : 

Waveform Components: Q Wave First negative deflection before R wave; Q wave includes the negative downstroke & return to baseline

Waveform Components:S Wave : 

Waveform Components:S Wave Negative deflection following the R wave; S wave includes departure from & return to baseline

Waveform Components:QRS : 

Waveform Components:QRS Q waves Can occur normally in several leads Normal Q waves called physiologic Physiologic Q waves < .04 sec (40ms) Pathologic Q >.04 sec (40 ms)

Waveform Components:QRS : 

Waveform Components:QRS Q wave Measure width Pathologic if greater than or equal to 0.04 seconds (1 small box)

Waveform Components:QS Complex : 

Waveform Components:QS Complex Entire complex is negatively deflected; No R wave present

Waveform Components:J-Point : 

Waveform Components:J-Point Junction between end of QRS and beginning of ST segment; Where QRS stops & makes a sudden sharp change of direction

Waveform Components: ST Segment : 

Waveform Components: ST Segment Segment between J-point and beginning of T wave

Waveform Components: ST Segment : 

Waveform Components: ST Segment Need reference point Compare to TP segment DO NOT use PR segment as reference! ST TP

Waveform Components: Practice : 

Waveform Components: Practice Find J-points and ST segments

Waveform Components: Practice : 

Waveform Components: Practice Find J-points and ST segments

Lead “Views” : 

Lead “Views”

Lead Groups : 

Limb Leads Chest Leads I aVR V1 V4 II aVL V2 V5 III aVF V3 V6 Lead Groups

Inferior Wall : 

Inferior Wall II, III, aVF View from Left Leg  inferior wall of left ventricle I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Inferior Wall : 

Inferior Wall Inferior Wall I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Posterior View portion resting on diaphragm ST elevation  suspect inferior injury

Lateral Wall : 

Lateral Wall I and aVL View from Left Arm  lateral wall of left ventricle I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Lateral Wall : 

Lateral Wall V5 and V6 Left lateral chest lateral wall of left ventricle I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Lateral Wall : 

Lateral Wall Lateral Wall I, aVL, V5, V6 ST elevation  suspect lateral wall injury I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Anterior Wall : 

Anterior Wall V3, V4 Left anterior chest  electrode on anterior chest I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Anterior Wall : 

Anterior Wall I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V3, V4 ST segment elevation  suspect anterior wall injury

Septal Wall : 

Septal Wall V1, V2 Along sternal borders Look through right ventricle & see septal wall I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Septal : 

Septal I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1, V2 septum is left ventricular tissue

ST Segment Analysis : 

ST Segment Analysis For each complex, determine whether the ST segment is elevated one millimeter or more above the TP segment

12-Lead ECG : 

12-Lead ECG AMI recognition Two things to know What to look for Where you are looking

AMI Recognition : 

AMI Recognition What to look for ST segment elevation One millimeter or more (one small box) Present in two anatomically contiguous leads

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