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Automatic Peak Power Tracker using dSPACER:

Automatic Peak Power Tracker using dSPACE R M.Tech Thesis Presentation By Vikrant A.Chaudhari. Under the guidance of Dr.S.Rangnekar.

Renewable Energy:

Renewable Energy Alternate sources of energy Biomass. Solar Energy. Wind Emergy. Geothermal Energy. Microhydel. Fuel cells.

Why Solar Energy.:

Why Solar Energy. Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy. It is free. It is also the most important of the non-conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting.

Facts about solar energy.:

Facts about solar energy. Earth surface receives 1.2x10 17 W of power from sun. Energy supplied by the sun in one hour is almost equal to the amount energy required by the human population in one year. Most if the other source on renewable energy have their in sun.

How electricity is generated through Solar Energy:

How electricity is generated through Solar Energy Solar photo voltaic (SPV). Can be used to generate electricity form the sun. Silicon solar cells play an important role in generation of electricity.

Solar cells Characteristics.:

Solar cells Characteristics. Isc-short circuit current. Voc-open circuit voltage. Peak power. Isc Voc

How solar cells Generate electricity:

How solar cells Generate electricity

From Cells to Modules:

From Cells to Modules The open circuit voltage of a single solar solar cell is approx 0.5V. Much higher voltage voltage is required for practical application. Solar cells are connected in series to increase its open circuit voltage.

Characteristics of a typical Solar Pv Module.:

Characteristics of a typical Solar Pv Module.

Variation of characteristics of Solar module with change in the atmospheric conditions:

Variation of characteristics of Solar module with change in the atmospheric conditions Variation due to isolation Change

Variation of characteristics of Solar module with change in the atmospheric conditions:

Variation of characteristics of Solar module with change in the atmospheric conditions Variation due to Temperature change.

Conclusion from the Characteristics.:

Conclusion from the Characteristics. Power of the module has only single maxima. Peak Power of the module changes with the change in temperature. Peak power of the module changes with the change in isolation level. Need to track the peak power in order to maximize the utilizations of the solar module/array.

How Peak Power is tracked.:

How Peak Power is tracked. Peak Power is tracked by adjusting the impedance of the load. This is obtained by using an interface between the load and the solar module. A Dc/Dc converter can act as a interface between the load and the module.

Block Diagram:

Block Diagram

How Peak Power is tracked.:

How Peak Power is tracked.

Conclusion.:

Conclusion. Dc/Dc converter is must in tracking peak power. Duty cycle of the converter needs to be changed for adjusting the peak power. How to adjust the duty cycle? Manual or Automatic.?

DC/DC converters:

DC/DC converters Step down converter Vo=D*Vi Vo<Vi

DC/DC converters:

DC/DC converters Step up Converter Vo=Vi/(1-D) Vo>Vi

Duty Cycle:

Duty Cycle D=t on /t

Methods of obtaining Peak Power:

Methods of obtaining Peak Power Though Manual tracking is possible but is waste of time. Automatic tracking is a better choice. Algorithms are used for Automatic Peak Power tracking.

Different Algorithms.:

Different Algorithms. Perturb & Observe. (P&O). Incremental conductance. Parasitic Capacitance method. Voltage Based Peak Power Tracking. Current Based Peak Power Tracking.

Perturb & Observe :

Perturb & Observe

Incremental Conductance :

Incremental Conductance

Parasitic Capacitance :

Parasitic Capacitance Account the parasitic capacitances of The solar cells in the PV array . Parasitic capacitance uses the switching ripple of the PPT to perturb the array. To account for the parasitic capacitance, the average ripple in the array power and voltage, generated by the switching frequency, are measured. The incremental conductance algorithm is then used to determine the direction to move the operating point of the MPPT.

Voltage Based Peak power Tracker.:

Voltage Based Peak power Tracker. Peak Power point of the module is at 76% of the module open circuit voltage. This value is fixed and does not vary much with the changes in the environmental conditions. By measuring the open circuit voltage and adjusting the module voltage to about 76% of Voc the peak power can be tracked.

Current Based Peak Power Tracker.:

Current Based Peak Power Tracker. Peak Power of the module lies at about 95% of its short circuit current. Measuring the short circuit current Isc and adjusting the operating the converter at 95% of Isc the module can be made to operate at Peak power.

Algorithm Used in the Present Report.:

Algorithm Used in the Present Report.

Algorithm:

Algorithm Module Voltage and Current measured at k th instant. Power is calculated at k th instant. P(k) P(k) stored in the memory. Module Voltage and current calculated at k+1 th instant. Power at k+1 th . ∆P=P(k+1)-P(k).

Algorithm:

Algorithm Also ∆V=V(k+1)-V(k). Depending on the sign of the ∆P and ∆V the duty cycle of the module is varied. If ∆P>0 and ∆V>0 then D=D- ∆D. If ∆P>0 and ∆V<0 then D=D+ ∆D. If ∆P<0 and ∆V <0 then D=D+ ∆D. If ∆P<0 and ∆ V>0 then D=D- ∆D. Were D= duty cycle and ∆D is perturbation.

Simulation of the Peak Power tracker:

Simulation of the Peak Power tracker Simulation in Matlab/Simulink. Model of solar PV module developed. Model of Dc/Dc converter. Load. Development of PPT algorithm in Simulink.

Solar PV Module Model.:

Solar PV Module Model. Electrical Model of PV Cell

Model of PV Module.:

Model of PV Module. Simulink Model of Solar PV Module.

Model of Solar PV Module.:

Model of Solar PV Module.

Simulink Model of the PPT:

Simulink Model of the PPT

Simulink Model of the Algorithm:

Simulink Model of the Algorithm

Peak Power Tracking.:

Peak Power Tracking.

Peak Power Tracking.:

Peak Power Tracking.

dSPACER:

dSPACE R A real time Control solution. Control of hardware through Personal computer. Works on Matlab/Simulink Platform. Automatic C code generation. Easy to generate control logic in Matlab/Simulink and downloading to the dSPACE add on card.

Experimental Setup:

Experimental Setup Solar module Dc/Dc converter(step up and step down). A load (resistive load) Personal computer (installed with dSPACE hardware)

Experimental Setup.:

Experimental Setup.

Solar Module :

Solar Module Isc=2.9A. Voc=20V. Power=38W. Vp=17.7V. Ip=2.2A.

Hardware Setup.:

Hardware Setup.

Schematic:

Schematic

Results:

Results

Results.:

Results.

Results.:

Results.

Results:

Results

Results:

Results

Results.:

Results.

Results.:

Results.

Results.:

Results.

Results.:

Results.

Conclusions:

Conclusions Power output of the module improves by about 100%( doubles) with the PPT system than it was with out the MPPT system. The power delivered to the load in case of step-down and step up converter is almost same. Only difference that was observed was with the output voltage.

Conclusions:

Conclusions Temperature of the module is an important parameter. The power output of the module changes by about 0.5% for every degree rise in temperature. So a 38W module gives only a power of about 29W peak The module placement also plays an important role in power output. Module is kept in south facing. Buts its elevation angle must be adjusted every month to get high power output.

Future Scope.:

Future Scope. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm for peak power tracking is explained in the present report. Simulink models of algorithms other than P&O can be developed and tested on the real time platform using the dSPACE R . Microcontroller based dedicated MPPT controller can be carried out using the same algorithm.

Future Scope.:

Future Scope. A whole stand alone system including the MPPT system and the inverter system can be developed using the dSPACE R .

References.:

References. 1].Chihchiang Hua, , Jongrong Lin, and Chihming Shen,“Implementation of a DSP-Controlled Photovoltaic System with Peak Power Tracking”,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 45, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1998 pp 99-107. 2].Chihchiang Hua and Chihming Shen, “Control of DC/DC Converters for Solar Energy System with Maximum Power Tracking”.

References.:

References. 3]. K. H. Hussein et al, “Maximum photovolatic power tracking: An algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. vol. 142, pt. G, no. 1, pp. 59–64, Jan. 1995. 4].C.R. Sullivan and M.J. Powers,“A High-Efficiency Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Arrays in a Solar-Power Race Vehicle”, IEEE PESC‘93, 1993, pp.574-580.

References.:

References. 5].B.K. Bose, P.M. Szczesny and R.L. Steigerwald,,“Microcomputer Control of a Residential Photovoltaic Power Condictioning System”, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. IA-21, no. 5,Sep. 1985, ppll82-1191. 6].Xuejun Liu and A.C.Lopes,,“An Improved Perturbation and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for PV Arrays” IEEE PESC ‘2004, pp.2005-2010.

References.:

References. 7].D. P. Hohm, M. E. Ropp,“Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms Using an Experimental, Programmable, Maximum Power Point Tracking Test Bed”,IEEE,2000.pp.1699-1702. 8]. Mohammad A. S. Masoum, Hooman Dehbonei, and Ewald F. Fuchs, “Theoretical and Experimental Analyses of Photovoltaic Systems With Voltage- and Current-Based Maximum Power-Point Tracking”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 17, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2002.

References:

References 9]. T. Markvart, “ Solar Electricity”, John Wiley & Sons,1994. 10]. N. Mohan et al., Power Electronics—Converter, Applications, and Design. New York: Wiley, 1995. 12]. www.ieeexplore.ieee.org 13]. www.mathworks.com 14]. www.dspace.de

Questions?:

Questions? ?

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