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Coal and petroleum :

Coal and petroleum Coal and petroleum are sources of energy that are non- renewable. They were made in the nature a long time before and they will finish after long-time use

What is Coal?:

What is Coal? Coal: A sedimentary rock that burns Mineralized vetegatative material deposited over a long period of time (although miniscule geologically) altered chemical composition Formed by increased Temperature and Pressure Partial decay resulting from restricted access to oxygen

Environments of Coal formation:

Environments of Coal formation Fresh-water peat lands Upper delta and alluvial plain swamps Marshes Bogs Limnic environments


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COAL Carbon > 50% Impurities Volatile Matter Sulphur Chlorine Phosphorus Nitrogen Trace amounts Dirt Other elements

Chemical composition:

Chemical composition Element % range Carbon 83 to 87% Hydrogen 10 to 14% Nitrogen 0.1 to 2% Oxygen 0.1 to 1.5% Sulfur 0.5 to 6% Metals < 0.1%


TYPES OF COAL Peat Lignite Sub-bituminous coal Bituminous coal Anthracite Graphite

Petroleum & Natural Gas formation vs. Coal formation:

Petroleum & Natural Gas formation vs. Coal formation Not-so-well-understood differences in formation: Organic matter: Petroleum & Natural Gas: marine OM Coal: terrestrial OM Pressure Temperature Presence of solutions

Coal mine fatalities:

Coal mine fatalities

Coal mine injuries:

Coal mine injuries


WHAT IS OBTAINED FROM COAL? Coke Coal tar Coal gas Click on buttons to know more


Coke Coke, hard, porous residue left after the destructive distillation of coal. Used as a reducing agent in the smelting of pig iron and as a fuel, coke is blackish-gray and has a metallic luster. It is composed largely of carbon, usually about 92 %; most of the remainder is ash. When used as a fuel, it has a high heating value of 13,800 Btu/lb. click anywhere to view data Click here

Coal tar:

Coal tar Coal Tar, viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds, mostly hydrocarbons. Its composition varies with the coal, the temperature at which it is formed, and the equipment used.

Coal gas:

Coal gas The most important coal-gasification processes aim chiefly at production of so-called pipeline quality gas, which is reasonably interchangeable with natural gas. Gas from coal, besides having pumping and heating specifications, must meet strict limits on content of carbon monoxide, sulfur, inert gases, and water. click to goback Click anywhere to view the data

Beehive coke ovens:

Beehive coke ovens

Underground mining :

Underground mining


Petroleum Petroleum is a naturally occurring ,flammable liquid , that are found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface. It was produced when sea creatures died and got covered with sand and clay. Under high pressure , these dead organisms changed into petroleum and natural gases.

Examples of Petroleum Traps:

Examples of Petroleum Traps

Petroleum Resources:

Petroleum Resources Conditions for source rock are rare Conditions for maturation must be just right Migration must not let petroleum escape to surface Trap must exist before migration occurs


PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM Ethane and other short-chain alkenes Diesel fuel (petro diesel) Fuel oils Gasoline (Petrol) Jet fuel Kerosene Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Lubricants (light machine oils, motor oils, and greases,). Wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. Sulfur or Sulfuric acid. Bulk tar.


USES OF PETROLEUM Petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes like: Asphalt Diesel fuel Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Lubricating oils Paraffin wax Tar Petrochemicals Fuel oils Gasoline Kerosene

Fractional Distillation of Petroleum :

Fractional Distillation of Petroleum Crude oil is refined into products such as gasoline, asphalt, and waxes by a process called fractional distillation. During the process, the parts, or fractions, of crude oil are divided out successively by their increasing molecular weight. For instance, gasoline has a low molecular weight and vaporizes at a fairly low temperature. This means that at the appropriate temperature, while all of the rest of the oil is still in liquid form, gasoline may be separated out. The remaining oil goes through the same process at a slightly higher temperature, and jet fuel is divided out. Repeating the distillation process several times will separate out several constituents of crude oil, which are then processed and put to a wide range of uses.

Natural Gas:

Natural Gas Natural Gas, flammable gaseous mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons is a fossil fuel. It may contain as much as 85 % methane (CH4) and about 10 % ethane (C2H6), and also contains smaller amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12), and other alkanes.It contains small amounts of impurities, including carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and nitrogen (N2). Natural gas, which is usually found together with petroleum deposits in Earth’s crust, is extracted and refined into fuels that provide approximately 25 % of the world energy supply.

Formation of Natural gas :

Formation of Natural gas Natural gas is formed from plankton, water-dwelling microorganisms that include algae and protozoans. As these microorganisms died and accumulated on the ocean floors, they were slowly buried and the remains were compressed under layers of sediment. Over millions of years, the pressure and heat exerted by the overlying sediments chemically transformed this organic material into natural gas. Because petroleum and natural gas are formed by similar natural processes, these two hydrocarbons are often found together in underground reservoirs.

Uses of Natural Gas :

Uses of Natural Gas Natural gas is used both as a fuel and as a raw material in the manufacture of chemicals. As a residential fuel, it is burned in furnaces, water heaters, cooking stoves, and clothes dryers. As an industrial fuel, it is burned in kilns (special furnaces) used to bake bricks and ceramic tiles and to produce cement. Natural gas is also used for generating steam in water boilers and as a source of heat in glass making and food processing.

The end:

The end