MAN 416 - Chapter 3 (History)

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The History of Quality:

1 The History of Quality Dr. Hatice Camgoz Akdag

Guilds of Medieval Europe:

2 Guilds of Medieval Europe From the end of 13 th cetury to the early 19 th century, craftsman across medieval Europe were organised into unions called guilds. These uilds were responsible for developing strict rules for product and service quality. Inspection committies enforced the rules by marking flawless goods with a special mark or symbol. Inspection marks and master-craftsman marks served as proof of quality for customers throughout medieval Europe. This approach to manufacturing quality was dominant until the “Industrial Revolution” in the early 19 th century.

The Early 20th Century:

3 The Early 20 th Century The beginning of the 20 th century marked the inclusion of “processes” in quality practices. A “process” is defined as a group of activities that takes an input, adds value to it and provides an output, such as when a chef transforms a pile of ingredients into meal. 1924- Walter Shewhart, a statistician for Bell Laboratories, introduces control charts, making quality relevant not only for the finished product but for the processes that created it. 1928- H.F. Dodge and H.G. Roming develop acceptance sampling plans. 1931- W. Shewhart publishes “Economic Control of Quality of Manufactures Product.” 1940-1943: Bell Labs develop military standard sampling plans for the U.S. army. 1941- After entering WW-II in December, the U.S. enacted legislation to help gear the civilian economy to military production.

20th Century cont.:

4 20 th Century cont. 1944- Industrial Quality Control begins publication. The birth of total quality in the U.S. was in direct response to a quality revolution in Japan followed WW-II, as major Japanese manufacturers converted from producing military goods for internal use to producing civilian goods for trade. 1946- The American Society for Quality (ASQ) is formed. At first, Japan had a widely held reputation for shoddy exports, and their goods were shunned by international markets. This led Japanese organizations to explore new ways of thinking about quality.

Quality in Japan:

5 Quality in Japan 1946-1949 W.E. Deming is invited to Japan to give statistical quality control seminars. Deming was frustrated with American managers when most programs for statistical quality control were terminated once the war and government contracts came to an end. 1950- Deming begins education of Japanese scientists, engineers, and executives on the subject of quality control. 1950- K. Ishikawa introduces the cause- and –effect diagram (fish-bone diagram). 1951- Armand Feigenbaum publishes Total Quality Control. Joseph Juran publishes the Quality Control Handbook. 1951- Deming prize is instituted in Japan by JUSE in honor of W.E. Deming. 1954- Joseph Juran is invited to Japan for lectures in quality management and improvement.

Quality History cont.:

6 Quality History cont. 1957- British Statistician E.S. Page introduces the cumulatice sum (CUSUM) chart. 1960- The Quality Control Circle concept is introduced in Japan by K. Ishikawa. 1960s- courses in statistical quality control become widespread in Industrial Engineering academic programs. ASME and ASTEM popularize the concepts and techniques of quality control. 1969- Industrial Quality Control ceases publication, replaced by Quality Progress and Journal of Quality Technology . 1972- Quality Function Deployment (QFD) originated at Mitsubishi’s Kobe shipyards. 1975-1978: Books on experimental design oriented toward engineers and scientists begin to appear. Genichi Taguchi started this movement way back in 1948 in Japan. 1979- Philip Crosby publishes Quality is Free .

Quality History cont.:

7 Quality History cont. At first U.S. manufacturers held onto their assumption that Japanese success was price-related, and thus responded to Japanese competition with strategies aimed at reducing domestic production costs and restricting imports. This of course did nothing to improve American competitiveness in quality. 1980- Television documentary If Japan Can… Why Cant’t We? Is aired by NBC giving W.E. Deming renewed recognition in the U.S. Finally U.S. organizations began to listen. 1981- Ford Motor Company invites Deming to speak to its top executives. 1982- Deming publishes book titled Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position. 1984- P. Crosby publishes Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management

Quality History cont.:

8 Quality History cont. 1987- U.S. Congress passes a law establishing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. 1987- European Union countries adopt the ISO-9000 quality standards (BS5750). 1991- Kalite Dernegi (KALDER) is founded in Turkey; begins publishing journal titled Once Kalite in 1992. 1993- TUSIAD-KALDER quality award established and won by BRISA 1993- EU countries require ISO 9000 certification. 1993- Total Quality Management approach is widely taught in U.S. and some universities and colleges.

Quality in 21st Century:

9 Quality in 21 st Century As we move into the 21 st century, TQM has developed in many countries into holistic frameworks, aimed at helping organizations achieve excellent performance, particularly in customer and business results. In Europe, a widely adopted framework is the so-called “ Business Excellence ” or “ Excellence ” Model, promoted by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), and in the UK by British Quality Foundation (BQF).

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