Status of Faunal diversity in Uttarkhand- DBS College123

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Dr.Vinod Khanna drvkhanna51@Gmail.com Zoological Survey of India Dehra dun :

Dr.Vinod Khanna drvkhanna51@Gmail.com Zoological Survey of India Dehra dun STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY IN UTTARAKHAND STATE A review NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIODIVERSITY VIS-À-VIS ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATIPON IN HILLY TERRAINS (15th May 2011)

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Ever since the happening of the earth summit at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil the term biodiversity has become a buzzword . In fact term biodiversity is contracted form of Biological Diversity . The term 'biodiversity' encompasses the variety of all life on earth. It is identified as the variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part, including diversity within and between species and ecosystems. Quite simply it can be defined as variety, variability, between genes, species and ecosystems. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

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Species diversity which refers to the numbers and kinds of living organisms Genetic diversity , which refers to the genetic variation within a population of species. Ecosystem diversity , which is the variety of habitats, biological communities and ecological processes that occur in the biosphere. Biodiversity manifests itself at three levels:

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Biological diversity affects us all. Biological diversity has direct consumptive value in food, agriculture, Medicine and industry. It also has aesthetic and recreational value. It maintains ecological balance and continues evolutionary process . The indirect ecosystem services provided through biodiversity are photosynthesis, pollination, Respiration, chemical cycling, nutrient cycling, soil maintenance, climate regulation, air, water system management, and waste treatment and pest control . Quite Often asked Question ? Why Conserve Biodiversity?

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India is one of the twelve -mega biodiversity countries of the world and one of the four in Asia. The twelve Mega biodiversity countries that have been identified are : India , Brazil , Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Madagascar, Zaire, Australia, China, Indonesia and Malaysia . MEGABIODIVERSITY COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD Mega biodiversity? :Countries that contain as much as 60 to 70 per cent of the world's species.

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Status of Total diversity of Indian Fauna Taxa Species in India Species in World % in India Protista 2577 31259 8.24 Mollusca 5070 66535 7.62 Arthropoda 68389 987949 6.90 Ot. Invertebrates 8329 87121 9.56 Protochordata 119 2106 5.65 Pisces 2546 21723 11.72 Amphibia 209 5150 4.06 Reptilia 456 5817 7.84 Aves 1232 9026 13.66 Mammalia 390 4629 8.42 Total 91484 1226784 7.45 Source: UNEP-GBA (1995), MOEF (1997 and 1998), ZSI (1999), Kumar and Khanna, 2003, ZSI 2009

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Since India lies at the confluence of African, European and Indo-Malaysian region , the biota , therefore, includes African ( Ethiopian ) , European , Eurasian ( Palaeractic )and Mediterranean elements, which together with Indian and endemic elements contributes to the richness of the characteristic Indian biodiversity. Why is India rich in Biological Diversity ?

Uttarakhand State comprises thirteen districts :

Uttarakhand State comprises thirteen districts Garhwal 1.Uttarkashi, 2.Chamoli, 3.Pauri, 4.Rudraparayag, 5.Tehri, 6.Dehra Dun, 7Haridwar, and Kumaon 8.Udham Singh Nagar, 9.Nainital, 10.Almora, 11.Pithoragarh, 12.Champawat, 13.Bageshwar Boundaries: Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Pithoragarh share Inter-national boundary in the northwest with China, in the east the districts Pithoragarh, Champawat and Udhamsingh Nagar share the boundary with Nepal. Inter-state boundaries Uttarkashi and Dehra Dun share inter-state boundaries with Himachal Pradesh in the northwest While Dehra Dun, Haridwar, part of Nainital and Udhamsingh Nagar join the boundary of Uttar Prades h in the south.

Physiography:

Physiography The Garhwal Himalayas along with Kumao n and a part of Himachal Pradesh has unique characteristics of three Provinces Tibet in the north, Upper Gangetic Plain in the south and eastern Himalayan provinces in the east and Physiographically, Uttarakhand represents a cross-section of the Himalaya ranging from the plains to the trans-Himalaya, distinguishable into following regions on the basis of its and evolutionary history . 1 . The Trans Himalaya or the Semiarid Zone, 2. The Greater Himalaya or Himadri 3. The Lesser Himalaya 4. The Shiwalik Ranges 5. The foothills and Terai 6. Plains of Dehra Dun, Hardwar and Udham Singh Nagar Hence the faunal composition is diverse and interesting. Higher faunal diversity also depends to certain extent on high diversity of vegetation types, the endemism, however, is low in Uttarakhand.

Slide 10:

Between the Himalaya in the north and the Hills and the Plateau in the south lies a vast Gangetic Plains which is a homogenous alluvial plain, one of the largest in the world. In Uttarakhand the Bhabar skirts the Shiwaliks mainly in Garhwal and Nainital Pilibhit while the Terai extends from River Yamuna on the west and a large portion of it lies in the Nepal, covered with jungle and elephant grass. The Terai in Uttarakhand covers lower portion of district Nainital . Duns are contiguous to the Bhabar lying structurally between the Siwaliks and Lesser Himalaya .

Shiwalik Formations:

Shiwalik Formations One of the most important eco-region due to its *endemicity and *past geological History. * filtering zone for migration of fauna and flora from highlands to lowlands and vice-versa. * gateway to the enhanced biodiversity, green and white revolutions, industrializations and creation of livelihood opportunities. *Once harbored a rich fauna in the geological past as evidenced by the discovery of fossils of Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals. .

Shiwalik Formations:

Shiwalik Formations The region comprises of rocks under Cenozoic Era belonging to Middle Miocene, Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene. This system of rocks is considered to be the * largest storehouse of the mammalian remains and other vertebrate fossils The Era of Shiwalik Ecosystem of rocks is thus called “ Age of Mammals ”. The fossils comprise of elephants, dinotheres and primitive trilophodonts which fed on succulent herbage.

Altitudinal range:

Altitudinal range The wide altitudinal range is the richest zone in terms of habitat and biodiversity . Sambar, Musk deer, Wild Boar in the sub-tropical foot hills ; Musk deer, Serow, Goral, Tahr, Koklas and Monal pheasant in the temperate and sub-alpine regions , and Bharal, Snow Leopard, Brown Bear and Snow Cock in alpine regions , are some of the significant wildlife.

Slide 14:

significant wildlife. OF UTTARKHAND

UTTARAKHAND HAS EVERYTHING EXCEPT THE SEA:

UTTARAKHAND HAS EVERYTHING EXCEPT THE SEA But discovery of the Ammonite Fossils in the Upper reaches of Himalayas, in Nanda Devi are suggestive of the area being submerged under Tethys Sea in the geological past and hence the occurrence of the Marine Biodiversity in the Fossil form is also contributing to the richness of the faunal diversity in Uttarakhand . India, Indonesia, and the Indian Ocean cover the area once occupied by the Tethys Ocean, and Turkey, Iraq, and Tibet sit on Cimmeria. What was once the Tethys Sea has become the Mediterranean Se a.

Conservation Areas in Uttarakhand :

Conservation Areas in Uttarakhand Protected Areas Area (in Km2) District 1.Corbett National Park 520.80 Nainital 2.Corbett Tiger Reserve 1134 Nainital and Pauri 3.Rajaji National Park 820 Dehra Dun, Hardwar and Pauri 4.Nanda Devi National Park 624.62 Chamoli, Almora and Pithoragarh 5.Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve 5860 Chamoli, Bageshwar and Pithoragarh 6.Valley of Flowers NP 87.50 Chamoli 7.Kedarnath WLS 957 Rudraparayag 8. Gobind Pashu Vihar 481 Uttarkashi 9.Askot Musk deer Sanctuary 599.93 Pithoragarh 10. Gangotri National Park 1552 Uttarkashi, Tehri 11. Binsar WLS 45.59 Almora 12.Sonanadi WLS 301.18 Pauri Garhwal 13.Mussoorie WLS 10.82 Dehra Dun 14. Asan Conservation Reserve 4.4 Dehra Dun 15.Jhilmiljheel Conservation Reserve 37.83 Haridwar

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State of Forest Cover: AREA: 3.47m Ha constituting 64.81% of the State’s Geographical area. Reserve Forest Protected Forests Un-Classed Forest 68.74% 0.36% 30.9% Source: Annual Report 2000: Forest Survey of India

  . Status of Forest Cover in Uttarakhand (in km2 ) :

. Status of Forest Cover in Uttarakhand (in km 2 ) Districts Geographic Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Total Almora 5385 2071 466 21 2537 Chamoli 9125 2530 622 22 3152 Dehra Dun 3088 1239 331 90 1570 Pauri 5440 2198 978 115 3176 Hardwar 2360 265 320 0 585 Nainital 6794 2920 649 5 3569 Pithoragarh 8856 2188 824 141 3012 Tehri 4421 1807 753 132 2560 Uttarkashi 8016 2631 468 41 3099 Total 53485 17849 5411 567 23260

Diversity of Forest Types in Uttarakhand:

Diversity of Forest Types in Uttarakhand 1.Tropical Moist Forest (500-1000m): Terai and Bhabar belt of Sub Himalayan Tract 1. Scrub Forest Dominated by Shorea robusta, Adina cardifolia, Anogesissus latifolia, Terminalia tomentosa 2. Deciduous Forest 3.Savannah Forest Interspersed with Bamboo, Climbers and Cane ]2 . Sub-Tropical Pine Forest (1000-2000m) 1 . Broad leaved Forest Dominant species are Shorea, Terminalia, Albizzia, Cedrella, 2.Pine Forest (1500-1800m) Dominant species are Shorea, Terminalia, Albizzia, Cedrella, 3.Subtropical evergreen Forest 1800-2000m Dominant species are Shorea, Terminalia, Albizzia, Cedrella, 3. Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest ( 2000-3000m) 1. Broad Leaved Forests Dominant species are Quercus, Acer, Betula, Ulmus, Prunus, Populus, Fraximus, Pinus, Cedrus, Picea, Rhododendron, Abies pindrow . 2. Conifer Forests 4. Sub-Alpine Forests ( 3400-4000m) Forest appears above timberline Scattered stunted bushes of Juniperus communis, J.wallichiana , Rhododendron companulatum > mainly called “BUGYAL 5. Alpine Forests ( 4000-5000m) Enormous floristic and vegetation diversity marks the upper limit of vegetation, with variety of orchids, horticulture and economic plants, including Bamboo, wild germplasm of some cultivated species.

Slide 20:

District wise Status of Forest Cover in Uttarnchal (in km2) Districts Geographic Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Total Almora 5385 2071 466 21 2537 Chamoli 9125 2530 622 22 3152 Dehra Dun 3088 1239 331 90 1570 Pauri 5440 2198 978 115 3176 Hardwar 2360 265 320 0 585 Nainital 6794 2920 649 5 3569 Pithoragarh 8856 2188 824 141 3012 Tehri 4421 1807 753 132 2560 Uttarkashi 8016 2631 468 41 3099 Total 53485 17849 5411 567 23260

Slide 21:

Wetlands Diversity in Uttaranchal By virtue of its extensive geographical stretch, varied terrain and climate the Himalayan Mountain Ranges in Uttarakhand are bestowed with a series of wetlands Important Rivers being Ganga, Yamuna, Bhagirithi, Alakhnanda, Ramganga, Nayar, Kosi, Saryu, Sharda and their tributaries. These wetlands exhibit tremendous faunal diversity from Protozoa to Mammalia . Biodiversity value of these wetlands is perceived to be limited and frequently diverted to alternative developments. But these wetlands are most productive and endangered ecosystems . Their degradation can result into floods or loss of water availability, water sports, fishing, waterfowl potentials. They are roosting, breeding and shelter for migratory and resident birds during various times of the year.

With abounding diversity on all accounts the biodiversity of the State is bound to be rich. :

With abounding diversity on all accounts the biodiversity of the State is bound to be rich.

Faunal Diversity:

Faunal Diversity The scientists of Northern Regional Centre Dehra Dun compiled a baseline data on the 1. Faunal diversity of western Himalaya (U.P.) (1994) 2 .Fauna of Rajaji National Park (1995); 3.Fauna of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (1997); 4.Fauna of Asan Wetland (2003); 5.Some Selected Fauna of Gobind Pashu Vihar (2004); 6.Fauna of Corbett Tiger Reserve (2008), 7.Asan Conservation Reserve (2003), 8.Reserve Forest like Western Doon Shiwaliks (2007) and finally 9.After creation of the Uttarakhand State the entire Uttarakhand inventorying 3748 spp. (2010) That includes ; First Records : 451 species and subspecies, two new Taxa, 22 constitute a first record for India from Uttarakhand. Endemic Species: Ten species occurring in the state are endemic to India

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Fauna (No. of species) Western Himalaya (U.P.) (1994) Rajaji National Park (1995) Nanda Devi BR (1997) Asan Conservation Reserve (2003) Gobind Pashu Vihar (2004) Western Doon Shiwaliks (2007) Corbett Tiger Reserve (2008) Uttarakhand State (2010) Mammals 102 49 22 20 32 33 49 93 Aves 528 168 175 95 115 147 685 743 Reptiles 70 49 3 1 6 17 39 72 Amphibia 19 10 8 4 4 10 11 20 Pisces 124 49 1 40 27 34 36 132 Annelida 42 - 6 12 - - - 73 Mollusca 56 - 14 14 - - - - Ammonite fossils - - 1 - - - - - Crustacea 7 - - - - - - 17 Nematoda - - - - - 14 10 196 Trematoda - - - - - - 48 Cestoda - - - - - 36 Chilopoda 20 7 4 - 6 8 11 32 Arachnida 17 5 17 - - - - 127 Mites - - - - - - - 57

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Isoptera 49 21 - - - 21 47 Odonata 128 38 6 43 12 - 37 122 Plecoptera 20 - - - - - - Hemiptera 34 - 13 - - - 19 408 Orthoptera 97 - 14 - - - 34 64 Ephemeroptera - - - - - - 6 - Dermaptera 43 - 7 - - - 10 - Coleoptera 105 - - 9 - - 10 297 Lepidoptera 223 68 80 - 48 43 36 439 Hymenoptera 504 14 24 - 25 19 - 67 Diptera - - 24 - - - - 538 Trichoptera 60 - 2 - - - - - Neuroptera - 4 - - Collembola - - 2 - - - - 31 Thysanura - - 1 - - - - 4 Protozoa - - - - - - - 35 Total No. of Species 2248 478 427 238 518 325 1013 3748 Western Himalaya 1994 Rajaji National Park 1995 Nanda Devi BR 1997 Asan Conservation Reserve 2003 Gobind Pashu Vihar 2004 Western Doon Shiwalik s 2007 Corbett Tiger Reserve 2008 Uttarakhand 2010

1. Fauna of Uttarakhand Vertebrates :

1. Fauna of Uttarakhand Vertebrates Mammalia : 93 species Aves : 743 species Reptilia :72 species Amphibia :20 species Pisces :132 species 1060 species

Part –II : Insecta, includes 38 chapters on 10 faunal groups: :

Part –II : Insecta, includes 38 chapters on 10 faunal groups: Collembola : 31 species Thysanura : 04 species Odonata : 122 species Orthoptera : 64 species Isoptera : 47 species Hemiptera : 408 species Coleoptera : 297species Diptera : 538 species Lepidoptera : 439 species Hymenoptera : 67 species 2020 species

Part-III : Invertebrata (other than Insecta) Includes 13 chapters on 9 faunal groups:

Part-III : Invertebrata ( other than Insecta) Includes 13 chapters on 9 faunal groups Protozoa : 35 species Trematoda :48 species Cestoda : 36 species Nematoda :196 species Annelida : 73species Crustacea : 17 species Chilopoda : 32 species Araneae : 127 species Ixodid Ticks : 47 species Mites : 57 species 668 species 3748+ 598= 4346 species In addition to the above mentioned faunal diversity of 3744 species from Uttarakhand, 598 species of some groups of fauna , reported under Western Himalaya U.P. And Nanda Devi Biosphere documents, also occur and contribute to the faunal richness of the State.

A- Summary of Fauna of Uttarkhand document:

A- Summary of Fauna of Uttarkhand document

2. Fauna of Corbett Tiger Reserve:

2. Fauna of Corbett Tiger Reserve Group Species Vertebrata Mammals 49 Aves 685 Reptila 39 Amphibia 11 Pisces 36 Invertebrata Nematodes 10 Myriapoda 11 Isoptera 21 Hemiptera 19 Odonata 37 Orthoptera 34 Lepidoptera 6 Dermaptera 10 Coleoptera 10 Total 1013

3. Fauna of Rajaji National Park:

3. Fauna of Rajaji National Park Group Species VERTEBRATA Mammals 49 Aves 168 Reptilia 49 Amphibia 10 Pisces 49 INVERTEBRATA Centipedes 7 Scorpiones 5 Hymenoptera 14 Lepidoptera 68 Odonata 38 Isoptera 21 Total 478

4. Fauna of Asan Wetland, Dehradun:

4. Fauna of Asan Wetland, Dehradun Group Species VERTEBRATA Mammalia 20 Aves 95 Reptilia 1 Amphibia 4 Pisces 40 INVERTEBRATA Odonata 43 Coleoptera 9 Annelida 12 Mollusca 14 Total 238

5. Fauna of Western Doon Shiwaliks:

5. Fauna of Western Doon Shiwaliks VERTEBRATA Mammalia 33 Aves 147 Reptilia 17 Amphibia 10 Pisces 34 INVERTEBRATA Nematoda 14 Chilopoda 8 Lepidoptera 43 Hymenoptera 19 Total 325

6. Birds of Bhimgoda Barrage:

6. Birds of Bhimgoda Barrage Bhat,D. and Sharma, R. 2000. Diversity Status and feeding ecology of Avifauna in Motichur area of Rajaji National Park, India. Annals of Forestry, 8(2) 179-191. 67 species of Birds have been check listed Kumar, A. and Bhat , D. 2000. Status of migratory Avifauna of Subtropical wetland in Ganga Valley, Haridwar, India. Annals of Forestry, 8(1) 17-24. 22 species of Birds have been check listed

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7. Nematodes Associated with Insect Pests & Soil of Teak & Sal Forests of Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India Total 81 species are recorded from the teak and Sal forest of Dehradun 13 species forms new records from India 16 species are new records from Uttarakhand The soil around teak and Sal form new host /habitat records for 57 species of nematodes species were found to be associated with termites, termite hills and beetles Two insect parasitic species were found which can be utilized as biological control agents of insect pests

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From the foregoing citations it appears that the Uttarkhand has been well studied so far as the fauna is concerned b ut there are two things common in the studies. 1. In all studies all the five vertebrate groups are well documented and the other common feature is.. 2. Only a few Invertebrate groups have been documented

Gaps in the Knowledge on the fauna of the Uttarakhand Shiwaliks:

Gaps in the Knowledge on the fauna of the Uttarakhand Shiwaliks Gaps in the Knowledge Though comprehensive studies have been made by the Zoological Survey of India and other agencies, in Uttarakhand , as regards the major vertebrate fauna is concerned, yet the forgoing tables indicate lapses, in the invenorisation of the Invertebrate fauna. Most of the major insect orders like Hymenoptera (Ichneumonids, Chalcids , Tenthrinids (saw flies) predatory and parasitic Wasps, and Ants etc), Coleoptera (Dung Beetles, Timber Beetles, Aquatic Beetles) , Dipterans , Aquatic Hemiptera, Homoptera, Dermaptera, Lepidoptera (Moths) , Dictyoptera, Thysanoptera and Collembola , which are represented in Uttarakhand in plenty, needs taxonomists attention. Similarly, the Invertebrate groups Like Mollusca (both land and aquatic), Annelida (both Earthworms and leeches), Arachnida ( both spiders and Scorpions ), Crustacea (both aquatic and terrestrial), Millipedes and Centipedes ( Geophilid Scutigerids and Lithobiid), which play a useful role as soil fauna , needs taxonomist ‘s attention. Reasons for the gaps The major visible gaps in our knowledge on the groups listed is due to the declining interest in taxonomy, which is otherwise a solid base for any studies on any other aspect of Zoological Sciences . Recommendations I would, therefore, avail this opportunity to emphasize on the 1.I ntroduction of TAXONOMY as compulsory paper to all the Graduate and PG level students of Biological Sciences . 2. Additionally since the Shiwalik system of rocks is considered to be the largest storehouse of the mammalian remains and other vertebrate fossils , more intensified paleontological studies should also be undertaken in Shiwaliks

Rich Biodiversity: :

Rich Biodiversity : The present state of the Uttarakhand fauna , therefore, conforms to its rich heritage status supported by a rich floral diversity, vegetation, forest cover, healthy and pristine ecosystem and tremendous conservation efforts from species level to genetic level and to ecosystem level.

Threatened fauna in Shiwaliks of Uttarkhand :

Threatened fauna in Shiwaliks of Uttarkhand Scientific name Common Name Status Mammals 1. Panthera tigris Tiger En 2.Elephas maximus Elephant Vu Birds 3. Gyps bengalensis Indian White backed vulture Cr 4. Gyps indicus Long billed vulture Cr 5.Gyps tenuirostris Slender-billed vulture Cr 6. Vanellus gregarious Sociable lapwing Cr 7.Leptoptilos dubius Greater adjutant stork En 8. Falco cherrug Saker En 9 . Haubaropsis bengalensis Bengal Florican En 10. Pelecanus philippensis Spot billed Pelican Vu 11 . Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser Adjutant Stork Vu Scientific name Common Name Status 12. Marmaronetta angustrirostris Marbled teal Vu 13 . Helaiceetus leucoryphus Palla”s Fish eagle Vu 14. Aquilla calnga Greater Spotted Eagle Vu 15. Aquilla heliaca Eastern Imperial eagle Vu 16. Grus antigone Sarus crane Vu 17. Galliango numericola Wood Snipe Vu 18. Rynchops albicollis Indian Skimmer Vu 19. Aceros nipalensis Rufous -necked Hornbill Vu 20. Saxicola insignis Hodgson’s Buschat Vu 21. Prinia cinereocapila Hodgson’s Prinia Vu 22. Chaetornis striatus Bristeld Grass Warbler Vu 23. Ploceus megarhynchus Finn’s Weaver vu

Threatened fauna in Shiwaliks of Uttarkhand :

Threatened fauna in Shiwaliks of Uttarkhand Scientific name Common Name Status Reptilia 24 . Gavialis gangeticus Ghariyal Vu 25. Crocodylus palustris Lesson Crocodyle Vu 26 . Melanochelys tricarinata Three Keeled Turtle Vu Amphibia 27 . Paa minica Frog Vu Pisces 28. Raimas bola Indian Trout En 29. Tor chelynoides Black Mahseer En 30 . Tor putitora Yellow finned Mahseer En 31, Tor tor Red finned Mahseer En 32 . Nemacheilus montanus Mountain Loach En 33. Barilius vagra Hill trout Vu Scientific name Common Name Status 35.Labeo dero Hilly Labeo Vu 36. Puntius chola Bitter Carp Vu 37. Puntius chonchonius Red Barb Vu 38. Garra gotyla gotyla Stone Fish Vu 39. Mystus vittatus Fiddler Fish Vu 40 . Bagaius bagarius Vu Threatened Fauna in Uttarakhand Group En Vu Cr Total Mammals 1 1 - 2 Aves 3 14 4 21 Reptilia - 3 - 3 Amphibia - 1 - 1 Pisces 6 7 - 13 Total 10 26 4 40

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Gharial Crocodile Three Keeled Turtle Indian Trout Black Mahseer Red finned Mahseer

:Introduced biodiversity or Invasive Alien Species biodiversity in Uttarakhand:

: Introduced biodiversity or Invasive Alien Species biodiversity in Uttarakhand With the continual degradation and depletion of forest floor, the areas, which were earlier inaccessible, are now being cultivated with fast growing forest and fruit tree species of temperate region up to high altitudes. Such cultures have brought with them introduced variety of fauna specially pests of crops, fruit trees and forests, as also the viruses. With the growing tendency of social forestry and ornamental plants, the advent of soil micro-arthropods, annelids, centipedes, millipedes, etc has increased which may establish and may also be threatening to the local population of species. For instance exotic fishes like Brown Trout ( Salmo truta fario ) and Rainbow Trout ( Salmo gairdnerii ) were introduced by the British administrators for sports in the cold-water streams of Himalaya. Realizing their potential as a food fish, these trouts are now being cultured in large scale in the parts of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Garhwal and Kumaon hills. Since these trout are carnivorous they adversely affect the natural population of endemic Mahseer ( Tor sp.), wherever cultured. Similarly the weeds like Lantana sp. and Parthenium , introduced for some other purposes have now become menace and their eradication has become a problem, in the cultivated, semi-cultivated lands, etc.

Major threats to biodiversity:

Major threats to biodiversity The earth and its diversity are dynamic and ever changing and as such extinction is a natural phenomenon. The species becomes extinct either The threatened species is one that is at a significant risk of extinction in the foreseeable future because of factors effecting this population or by virtue of inherent rarity or When all individuals of the species die without producing off springs or they lack fecundity. Shrinkage of habitat or Indiscriminate Killing or Poaching Diseases or Invasion by Alien Species

Thanks:

Thanks Dr.Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India Dehra Dun

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