marketing_theory_week_4

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Consumer Behaviour - Overview : 

Consumer Behaviour - Overview Development of consumer behaviour Complex approach to decision making Different levels of complexity Purchasing without decisions Future developments Macro culture: possessions and self Consumer resistance

Consumer Behaviour : 

Consumer Behaviour Defined as “decision process and physical activity individual engage in when evaluating, acquiring, using and disposing of goods and services” Macro vs. micro perspective Heavier influence of sociology and psychology than economics

Development of consumer behaviour research : 

Development of consumer behaviour research 1950’s to mid 60’s: Evaluation of consumer characteristics Personality theories, life cycle etc Diffusion of innovations (1st sequential) Engel textbook: perception, motivation, learning, attitudes, personality, social groups, social class, culture 1970’s Psychographics, lifestyles

Development of consumer behaviour research : 

Development of consumer behaviour research 1980’s Behaviouralists, postmodernism Role of culture; values Language/ semiotics Deviant behaviours (shoplifting, homelessness, compulsive behaviours) Role of low involvement 1990’s Self and selves Self and brands

Complex Approach: Consumer Decision Making : 

Complex Approach: Consumer Decision Making Engel, Blackwell & Miniard Comprehensive illustration Criticised as problem operationalising Vagueness Role of influencing variables not defined Engel defence that framework still valid as intensity influences

Different Levels of Complexity in Consumer Decisions : 

Different Levels of Complexity in Consumer Decisions Levels of problem solving Extended, limited and routine Challenge and familiarity important Consumer confidence Differentiate between GPS, LPS & RPS Levels of involvement Intensity of interest Brain activity Direction/ focus Persistence Influences post purchase actions

Purchasing without decisions : 

Purchasing without decisions Olshavsky & Granblois No prepurchase search; no evaluation Learn through repeated exposure Hedonic/ experiential behaviour Classificaton: Strategic item acquisition Central budget allocation Generic product or service division Variant selection between brands

Future Developments : 

Future Developments Move towards realistic units (family) Consider assortments Situation specific Less US influence; globalisation Movement towards high tech Use multiple integrated research methods Growth in non-store retailing Influence of the internet Cross cultural research Environmental issues Rethink true cost Social problems of consumption gone wrong

Macro Consumer Behaviour : 

Macro Consumer Behaviour Possessions and the extended self (Belk) Macro consumer behaviour CB involved in all aspects of consumer life Role of consumption providing meaning to life Brands as symbolic resources for the construction of identity (Elliott & Wattanasuwan) Role of brands in construction of life meaning and identity

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have : 

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have Define possessions: the things we call ours Sense of self affected during loss or theft Treated after death Possessions influence 4 states of our existence: doing, having, being

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have : 

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have Evidence Brand and non-brand images Role of power and control Reminders and confirmers of identity Process of gaining identity coincides with gaining things Ease life transitions (see Volkswagen ad) Places, public monuments, experiences, time periods, TV programmes, movies, public figures Major categories Body Internal processes Ideas and experiences Persons, places and things to which feel attached

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have : 

Possessions and the extended self: We are what we have Evidence Loss of possessions Institutions (military, schools, etc.) Role of control; vulnerability Damage possessions diminishes the owner Neglect possessions that are inconsistent with self image Investing self in objects Entitled to product of your labour Invest ‘psychic energy’ Bury dead with their possessions Using clothing, possessions of dead person a taboo amongst family Perspectives and domain

Possessions and the extended self: Functions of Extended Self : 

Possessions and the extended self: Functions of Extended Self Having, doing, being Having Role of trophies Possession of gun: capabilities of doing and being Associate possessions with possessor Doing Marx’s sense of self worth Having is then “commodity fetishism” Live to work rather than work to live

Possessions and the extended self: Functions of Extended Self : 

Possessions and the extended self: Functions of Extended Self Mastery of possessions and Human Development Self vs. environment Self vs. others Possessions as means of parental control Adolescence and adulthood Old age (often shrinking sense of self and possessions) Sense of past Memories of people, occasions and relationships Contamination with desirable people, place, persons (manna of creator)

Possessions and the extended self:Processes of Self Extension : 

Possessions and the extended self:Processes of Self Extension Mastery/ control Mountaineering Nondurable products Rare gifts Creating Knowledge Community, people, book Contamination Incorporation (clothing exchange; share food etc.) Multiple levels of self Family, group, subculture, nation Family home; group clothing; business dress; charity

Possessions and the extended self:Special Cases : 

Possessions and the extended self:Special Cases Collections Legitimises acquisitiveness Fills gaps in collection – parallel process in self Money Transformative power of money Symbol of success and power; masculinity Pets Treatment of pets reflects regard for owners Therapeutic and expand sense of self Other people Wearing a companion Relatives Friends Self loss during divorce

Possessions and the extended self:Implications : 

Possessions and the extended self:Implications Vicarious consumption Gift giving Care of durable possessions Organ donation research Product disposition and disuse Role of extended self in generating the meaning of life

Extended Self and Brands:Potential for the Marketer : 

Extended Self and Brands:Potential for the Marketer Resolve “dilemma of the self” Fragmentation, uncertainty and struggle against commodification Social symbolism and self symbolism Meanings widely or narrowly shared by groups Lived vs. mediated experience Symbolic meaning, advertising and brands Advertising as a means to transfer culture and a cultural product itself Socially shared meaning Brand strategy Brands, trust and fragmentation Brands and deep meaning Mass-market brands and individual meanings

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