CS 490 Exam Review

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CS 490 Exam Review:

CS 490 Exam Review Zachary Wang

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Key points Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Software engineering is an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production. Essential software product attributes are maintainability, dependability and security, efficiency and acceptability. The high-level activities of specification, development, validation and evolution are part of all software processes. The fundamental notions of software engineering are universally applicable to all types of system development.

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Key points Chapter 1 Introduction 3 There are many different types of system and each requires appropriate software engineering tools and techniques for their development. The fundamental ideas of software engineering are applicable to all types of software system.

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Key points Software engineers have responsibilities to the engineering profession and society. They should not simply be concerned with technical issues. Professional societies publish codes of conduct which set out the standards of behaviour expected of their members . Three case studies are used in the book: An embedded insulin pump control system A system for mental health care patient management A wilderness weather station

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Key points Chapter 2 Software Processes 5 Software processes are the activities involved in producing a software system. Software process models are abstract representations of these processes. General process models describe the organization of software processes. Examples of these general models include the ‘waterfall’ model, incremental development, and reuse-oriented development.

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Key points Chapter 2 Software Processes 6 Requirements engineering is the process of developing a software specification. Design and implementation processes are concerned with transforming a requirements specification into an executable software system. Software validation is the process of checking that the system conforms to its specification and that it meets the real needs of the users of the system. Software evolution takes place when you change existing software systems to meet new requirements. The software must evolve to remain useful.

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Key points Chapter 2 Software Processes 7 Processes should include activities to cope with change. This may involve a prototyping phase that helps avoid poor decisions on requirements and design. Processes may be structured for iterative development and delivery so that changes may be made without disrupting the system as a whole. The Rational Unified Process is a modern generic process model that is organized into phases (inception, elaboration, construction and transition) but separates activities (requirements, analysis and design, etc.) from these phases.

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Key points Chapter 3 Agile software development 8 Agile methods are incremental development methods that focus on rapid development, frequent releases of the software, reducing process overheads and producing high-quality code. They involve the customer directly in the development process. The decision on whether to use an agile or a plan-driven approach to development should depend on the type of software being developed, the capabilities of the development team and the culture of the company developing the system. Extreme programming is a well-known agile method that integrates a range of good programming practices such as frequent releases of the software, continuous software improvement and customer participation in the development team.

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Key points Chapter 3 Agile software development 9 A particular strength of extreme programming is the development of automated tests before a program feature is created. All tests must successfully execute when an increment is integrated into a system. The Scrum method is an agile method that provides a project management framework. It is centred round a set of sprints, which are fixed time periods when a system increment is developed. Scaling agile methods for large systems is difficult. Large systems need up-front design and some documentation.

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Key points Chapter 4 Requirements engineering 10 Requirements for a software system set out what the system should do and define constraints on its operation and implementation. Functional requirements are statements of the services that the system must provide or are descriptions of how some computations must be carried out. Non-functional requirements often constrain the system being developed and the development process being used. They often relate to the emergent properties of the system and therefore apply to the system as a whole.

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Key points Chapter 4 Requirements engineering 11 The software requirements document is an agreed statement of the system requirements. It should be organized so that both system customers and software developers can use it. The requirements engineering process is an iterative process including requirements elicitation, specification and validation. Requirements elicitation and analysis is an iterative process that can be represented as a spiral of activities – requirements discovery, requirements classification and organization, requirements negotiation and requirements documentation.

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Key points Chapter 4 Requirements engineering 12 You can use a range of techniques for requirements elicitation including interviews, scenarios, use-cases and ethnography. Requirements validation is the process of checking the requirements for validity, consistency, completeness, realism and verifiability. Business, organizational and technical changes inevitably lead to changes to the requirements for a software system. Requirements management is the process of managing and controlling these changes.

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Key points Chapter 6 Architectural design 13 A software architecture is a description of how a software system is organized. Architectural design decisions include decisions on the type of application, the distribution of the system, the architectural styles to be used. Architectures may be documented from several different perspectives or viewssuch as a conceptual view, a logical view, a process view, and a development view. Architectural patterns are a means of reusing knowledge about generic system architectures. They describe the architecture, explain when it may be used and describe its advantages and disadvantages.

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Key points Chapter 6 Architectural design 14 Models of application systems architectures help us understand and compare applications, validate application system designs and assess large-scale components for reuse. Transaction processing systems are interactive systems that allow information in a database to be remotely accessed and modified by a number of users. Language processing systems are used to translate texts from one language into another and to carry out the instructions specified in the input language. They include a translator and an abstract machine that executes the generated language.

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Key points Chapter 7 Design and implementation 15 Software design and implementation are inter-leaved activities. The level of detail in the design depends on the type of system and whether you are using a plan-driven or agile approach. The process of object-oriented design includes activities to design the system architecture, identify objects in the system, describe the design using different object models and document the component interfaces. A range of different models may be produced during an object-oriented design process. These include static models (class models, generalization models, association models) and dynamic models (sequence models, state machine models). Component interfaces must be defined precisely so that other objects can use them. A UML interface stereotype may be used to define interfaces.

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Key points Chapter 7 Design and implementation 16 When developing software, you should always consider the possibility of reusing existing software, either as components, services or complete systems. Configuration management is the process of managing changes to an evolving software system. It is essential when a team of people are cooperating to develop software. Most software development is host-target development. You use an IDE on a host machine to develop the software, which is transferred to a target machine for execution. Open source development involves making the source code of a system publicly available. This means that many people can propose changes and improvements to the software.

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Key points Chapter 8 Software testing 17 Testing can only show the presence of errors in a program. It cannot demonstrate that there are no remaining faults. Development testing is the responsibility of the software development team. A separate team should be responsible for testing a system before it is released to customers. Development testing includes unit testing, in which you test individual objects and methods component testing in which you test related groups of objects and system testing, in which you test partial or complete systems.

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Key points Chapter 8 Software testing 18 When testing software, you should try to ‘break’ the software by using experience and guidelines to choose types of test case that have been effective in discovering defects in other systems. Wherever possible, you should write automated tests. The tests are embedded in a program that can be run every time a change is made to a system. Test-first development is an approach to development where tests are written before the code to be tested. Scenario testing involves inventing a typical usage scenario and using this to derive test cases. Acceptance testing is a user testing process where the aim is to decide if the software is good enough to be deployed and used in its operational environment.

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Key points Chapter 9 Software evolution 19 Software development and evolution can be thought of as an integrated, iterative process that can be represented using a spiral model. For custom systems, the costs of software maintenance usually exceed the software development costs. The process of software evolution is driven by requests for changes and includes change impact analysis, release planning and change implementation. Lehman’s laws, such as the notion that change is continuous, describe a number of insights derived from long-term studies of system evolution.

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Key points Chapter 9 Software evolution 20 There are 3 types of software maintenance, namely bug fixing, modifying software to work in a new environment, and implementing new or changed requirements. Software re-engineering is concerned with re-structuring and re-documenting software to make it easier to understand and change. Refactoring, making program changes that preserve functionality, is a form of preventative maintenance. The business value of a legacy system and the quality of the application should be assessed to help decide if a system should be replaced, transformed or maintained.

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Key points Chapter 10 Sociotechnical Systems 21 Socio-technical systems include computer hardware, software and people and are designed to meet some business goal. Human and organizational factors, such as the organizational structure, have a significant effect on the operation of socio-technical systems. Emergent properties are properties that are characteristic of the system as a whole and not its component parts. The fundamental stages of systems engineering are procurement, development and operation.

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Key points Chapter 10 Sociotechnical Systems 22 System procurement covers all of the activities involved in deciding what system to buy and who should supply that system. System development includes requirements specification, design, construction, integration and testing. When a system is put into use, the operational processes and the system itself have to change to reflect changing business requirements. Human errors are inevitable and systems should include barriers to detect these errors before they lead to system failure.

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