ACA2006-Alsafi-Risk Taking

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking : 

Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Professor Abdullah T. Alsafi King Khalid University College of education                Department of Educational Psychology Abha, Saudi Arabia P.O.BOX 9035 Email: profalsafi@gmail.com ACA International Conference 2006

Outlines : 

Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 2 Introduction to Creativity Definition of Creative Thinking Creativity Process Life Style Components of Creativity Creativity ability Introduction to Risk-taking The Definitions of Risk-Taking Creativity-Cognitive Domain and Affective Domain Risk–Taking as a Function of Situational and Personality Factors Creativity and Education in Saudi Arabia Conclusion Outlines

Introduction to Creativity : 

Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 3 Among educational psychologists there has been an increasing concern with creativity. The last three decades have seen a great interest in the effort to investigate the nature and development of creative thinking and it is measurement. Guilford (1950) gave a presidential address on creativity to American psychological association which considerably stimulated creativity research in science , art and education. Research studies and development of creative activities have proved to be of significant value in improving our understanding of concept of creativity development and its measurement. Thus, many approaches have been focused on creative thinking in investigation and conceptualization of creativity. Introduction to Creativity

Definition of Creative Thinking : 

Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 4 Definition of Creative Thinking Creativity is a concept of interest to man since the very beginning of recorded history today we have moved to a more ' man-centered' concept of creativity though only in recent decades has creativity become of specific interest to psychological researchers. Particular emphasis has been paid to the cognitive aspect of creativity, i.e, creativity. As away or style of thinking, our discussion is centered largely on research in this more recent, cognitive fields.

Definition of Creative Thinking (cont.) : 

Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 5 A process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gap in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies and so on. Identifying the difficulty, searching for solutions, making guesses, or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies ,testing and retesting these hypotheses, and possibility modifying and retesting them, and finally communicating the result. Definition of Creative Thinking (cont.)

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 6 Creativity Process Davis (1999) proposed that creativity fully develops one's capability and increases one's flexibility, curiosity, open mindedness and sense of adventure. Creativity involves thinking, intuition, feeling and sensing and that in order to achieve fulfillment, the highly creative personality needs a framework of self understanding, positive encouragement and acceptance in order to balance the rational and irrational components of creative personality (Wallace,1986). The creative process is emergency in action of a novel relation product, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual "(Carl Rogers, 1968).

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 7 Life Style Creative thinking is more than using your imagination to devise lots of new ideas. Creativity is a life style, a personality trait, a way of perceiving the world, a way of living and away of growing. Living creatively is developing your talents, leering to use your abilities, and becoming what you are capable of becoming. Being creative is exploring new ideas, new places and new activities. Being creative is developing a sensitivity to problems of others and problems of humankind. One need not have great artistic, literary, scientific or entrepreneurial talent to be a creative person.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 8 Torrance definitions of creativity as divergent thinking is to solve the problem and to think of new ideas that . no –one had thought of before .therefore ,Torrance assessed creativity based on fluency , flexibility ,originality and elaboration, and this approach is similar to that of Guilford. Creativity thinking appears from divergent thinking rather than convergent thinking. As well as fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration, there are other creative abilities contributed by Guilford and Torrance, such as the following elements : Life Style (cont.)

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 9 There are essential elements of Creative Divergent Thinking, namely: FLUENCY ; is the child's ability to think of a quantity of ideas, similar ideas in the mind, both verbally and non verbally. FLEXIBILITY ; is the child's ability to think of many different categories. ORIGINALITY originality is the child ability to think and produce unexpected ideas or responses. ELABORATION: elaboration is the child ability to develop, generate and details to given problem or ideas.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 10 The most common definition of creative thinking focuses on the creative abilities and creative process and product Fluency: the ability to produce quantities of ideas, verbal or non verbal, to the problem solving situation. Flexibility: is ability to shift ideas to different patterns, take different approaches to problem situations, and think of ideas in different categories. Elaboration: is ability to add and expand the idea which include developing, embellishing and implementing the idea.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 11 Imagination : Is the ability to think in an imaginative way. Metaphorical thinking: Is the ability to borrow an idea from its context and use it in another Analysis: Is the ability to analysis the whole details into parts. Synthesis: Is the ability to combine parts into workable, perhaps creative, whole. Sensitivity to problems: Is the ability to identify the problem, the difficulty, identifying missing information and finding the solution.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 12 Evaluation: Is ability to critically separate relevant from irrelevant ideas, and form appropriate ideas. Transformation : Is ability to think to modify and change the idea to new use, to see new meaning and application. Problem defining: Is the ability to identify the real problem, isolating important aspects, simplifying a problem, identifying sub – problems and defining a problem broadly. Visualization Is the ability to see things in the mind eye, the ability to fantasize and imagine.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 13 Evaluation: Is ability to critically separate relevant from irrelevant ideas, and form appropriate ideas. Transformation : Is ability to think to modify and change the idea to new use, to see new meaning and application.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 14 Components of Creativity Creativity as a product and as a process : Creativity as a product is described as a painting, sculpture, or invention, tend to draw attention away from the way in which work came into being. Creativity should be understood not only as the outcome of human endeavor, but also as a characteristic of life itself.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 15 Creativity as a process : where as the process is usually obscure, even to the person in the acts of creating. However, Davis stressed the importance of the process and product. Each one making the other strong. Creativity is quality of protoplasm : Creativity is a characteristic of life itself. Anderson stated that, "as an individual interacting with other humans in his environment he is moving, growing changing, flowing uniqueness. As is true for his cells, the uniqueness of his total organization and harmony of purpose, or integration, with other humans are basic necessities for his optimum development "

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 16 Creativity as spontaneous behavior: Creativity is an expression of individual difference and originality. Thinking, knowing, feeling and acting; these processes will emerge with creativity, if there is no threat or punishment from the environment.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 17 Creativity is the ability to make new combinations of social work. Creativity is the ability to relate and connect, sometimes in odd and yet in striking fashion, lies at the very heart of any creative use of the mind, no matter in what field or discipline. " The creative process is emergency in action of a novel relation product ,growing out of the uniqueness of the individual" (Carl Rogers, 1968). Davis (1983) proposed that creativity fully develops one flexibility, curiosity, open mindedness and sense of adventure. Creativity Ability

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 18 Introduction to Risk-Taking Although risk-taking has been a rather minor area of study for the last twenty years, increasing numbers of people today are concerned with risk-taking as it relates to learning. As background to a discussion of the educational implications of risk-taking, this paper will describe the research into factors involved in risk-taking these include situational factors such as the nature of the motivation provided by the task, and the effect of other people on the risk-taker.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 19 Hutchinson, (1978) pointed out the risk-taken behavior is persistence in a task ( a game of chance) regardless of whether a reward results. Continuing performance in this task is considered as an indication of risk-taking tendency. Viscott ( 1977 ) emphasized the subjective Dimension of risk-taking by saying: "it is surprising how little most people know about taking risk. Other people become inhibited by fear at the very moment they commit themselves to action "(p.13) Viscott describes risk in the known and the certain and to reach for something you are not entirely sure of but believe is better than what you now have, or is at least necessary to survive (p.17). Implicit in Viscott's definition is the notion that the circumstances and personality traits of the risk-taker vital to an understanding of his\her behavior.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 20 It appears then the any definition of risk-taking must take into account both the situation and the personality of the risk-taker. The situation of the risk-taker includes such factors as the nature of the risk-taking task, the motivation provided by that task, and the risk-taker's interaction with other people either a group witch may be involved in the risk-taking decision or society as a whole. The personality of the risk-taker includes a myriad of factors sex, age, profession, values, anxiety level, and creativity --- which affect the risk-taking disposition. Carney and Cranny ( 1971 ) pointed out that the risk-taker assesses, perhaps reflexively, the probability of achieving success in goal oriented situations, and that he or she seeks the easiest way to achieve that goal .

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 21 The definitions of risk-taking vary widely, depending on the researchers purposes and theoretical biases. Because most definitions of risk-taking were grounded in economic theory in the first half of the Twentieth century, the psychological dimension of risk-taking was generally neglected ( lopes 1983 ). The literature on risk-taking concentrates largely on situational tasks such as gambling or skill games involving a significant element of chance. Gambling provides an excellent setting for study of risk-taking behavior of the individual, as it involves a large element of chance in achievement of the goal—that is, winning. The Definitions of Risk-Taking

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 22 The strategic environment rewards or punishes risk taking and quickly sensitizes decision makers to resource issues. This resource-constrained environment demands that leaders must do more with less, and often increases the risk of failure to achieve the desired end state. Because the strategic environment is rapidly changing, decision makers must learn to think smarter and more creatively in order to get the most out of dwindling resources. Creative solutions are not achieved without taking risk, and often deviate sharply from known ways of doing things.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 23 Creativity-Cognitive Domain and Affective Domain Cognitive-affective creative learning has been given considerable attention by Williams and Treffinger.    Williams did, and still does, make good contributions and efforts to enhance creative thinking in the classroom, because Williams has realized that teachers have difficulty in encouraging children’s divergent thinking. Then (1972) he created a creative work to help a child to generate many original and unusual ideas. Therefore, he considered that cognitive thinking and affective feeling are very important factors and elements to facilitate creative divergent thinking and creative divergent feeling. This is the Williams cognitive affective interaction (CAI) model. The aim of the model is to help the teacher to reinforce creative divergent thinking and creative divergent feeling in elementary school children. The model is a conceptual system which describes categories of:

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 25 These cognitive domains and affective domains plus eighteen strategies, which can help the teacher to reinforce children’s creative thinking and creativity, can be learned (see figure 1).  Similarly, Treffinger (1980) created another instructional model based on cognitive thinking and affective feeling. This model is a creative learning strategies model to improve children’s creative learning among children. The model included three levels, each level based on cognitive and affective processes. In the cognitive domain, he was guided through the divergent function of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration, and though the complex thinking processes of application, analysis and evaluation. Involvement in real challenges included independent inquiry, self-direction, and resource management. In the affective domain, special emphasis was placed on problem sensitivity, value development and self-actualization.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 26

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 27 Fluency: The child thinks of several answers when a question is asked. The child draws several pictures when asked to draw one. The child has several ideas about something instead of just one. The child asks many questions. The child uses a large number of words when expressing ideas. The child works rapidly and produces a great deal. The Williams scale (A parent and teacher rating scale of children divergent and feeling related to creativity)

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 28 Flexibility: The child thinks of many to use an object rather than its common use. The child expresses more than one meaning for a picture, story, poem , or problem . The child can transfer meaning is one subject to another subject . The child shifts his point of view to another point of view. The child exhibits a variety of ideas and explores many of them. The child thinks of numerous possibilities for solving a problem.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 29 Originality: The child likes objects I room placed off-center or prefers drawing and designs which are asymmetrical. The child become dissatisfied with one right answer and seeks other options. The child think in uncommon ways. The child enjoys the unusual and dislikes ordinary ways of doing things. The child after having read or heard about a problem, begins inventing solutions. The child questions established and devises new methods of problem solution. Elaboration: The child adds lines, color, and details to his\her drawing

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 30 The child senses a deeper meaning in an answer or solution and produce more depth of meaning. The child takes off with another ideas and alters it some way. The child wants to 'jazz-up' or embellish the work or ideas of others. The child has little interest in ordinary objects and adds details to make them better. The child change the rules of games.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 31 Curiosity : The child questions everything and everybody . The child loves to explore mechanical things. The child is constantly searching for new avenues of thinking. The child normally explores things and ideas which are new to him . The child is alert to possibilities for solution. The child explores books, game, maps, picture, etc, to find more meaning. Imagination: The child makes up stories about places never seen. The child imaging how others would deal with a problem.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 32 The child daydreams about things or place The child likes to imagine things he has never experienced. The child see things in pictures or drawings other than the obvious The child can wonder freely about things and ideas Complexity: The child is interested in intricate things and ideas The child likes to involve himself in complicated tasks The child wants to figure things out without assistance

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 33 The child enjoys tasks that are difficult The child thrives on trying again and again in order to succeed The child produces more complex solution to problem than seem necessary Risk-taking: The child will defend ideas regardless of reaction of others The child sets high goals of accomplishment and is not afraid to try to achieve them The child admits to mistakes of failures The child likes trying new tings or ideas and is not easily influenced by friends The child is not overly concerned with disapproval by classmates The child prefers taking chance or 'ideas ' just to learn of the outcomes

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 34 Situational factors : Will any examination of the risk-taking disposition must certainly take into account personality characteristics and traits, situational factors do determine the risk-taking direction. Risk–Taking as a Function ofSituational and Personality Factors

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 35 They also include personality factors such as sex , age profession values, anxiety level ,and creativity of the risk-taker. The paper will conclude with suggestions on how risk-taking can be integrated into the learning environment. First, however, it is necessary to outline some traditional definitions of risk-taking. Risk-Taking behavior seems clearly a factor in creativity. This conclusion is not surprising, since, as we have seen, risk-taking is a result of a complex configuration of the situational and personality factors of the risk-taker.  By way of summary, it can now be said that the literature suggests that risk-taking behavior and social reinforcements are two basic variables that influence creativity. Risk-taking behavior has been found to be a predicting factor of creativity, and there is a significant relationship between risk- taking behavior and creativity.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 36 Task: In most risk-taking situations and behaviors, the plays an important role. This is why most sociologists and psychologists, during the last decade or so, have concentrated on this area. The task that call for the risk-taking propensity are generally those that involve chance rather than skill. For this reason, the literature on risk-taking concentrates largely on situational tasks such as gambling or skill games involving a significant element of chance. Gambling provides an excellent setting for study of risk-taking behavior of the individual , as it involves a large element of chance in achievement of the goal—that is, winning .

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 37 Motivation: A related situational factor affecting risk-taking is motivation the relationship between achievement motivation and risk-taking behavior has been examined by Carney ( 1971 ) , Atkinson ( 1957-1958 ) , Atkinson , Bastian ,earl , and lit win ( 1960 ) , and Atkinson and feather ( 1966 ). The higher the degree of motivation present, the more likely the individual will be to display risk-taking behavior. However, Atkinson ( 1957 ) could not define a particular level of motivation which would produce a certain degree of risk- taking disposition. Atkinson’s finding seems to show once again that, in the final analysis. The totally of the individual’s personal situation and personality has a much greater sway in his or her disposition taking risk than any universal statement .

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 38 Group Impact: Another aspect of the risk-taking situation which has been studied at length is what has be called the " risk shift effect "—that is , the effect on an individual's risk-taking disposition due to his or her. Interaction within a group. Research in this area has demonstrated that group interaction influences risk-taking behavior, in that individuals who are disposed to smaller risk move to taking higher risk in a group. This shift toward higher risk has been demonstrated in a number of contexts. Wallach and Konag ( 1965 ) explained this shift by stating that the individual tends to take risk in a group because the entire burden of the responsibility for the risk's consequences is distributed over the whole group, so that the individual member's responsibility is considerably reduced. No individual member is held accountable for the success or failure the risk's consequences . Hoyt and Stoner ( 1968 ) , on the other hand, argued that the risky shift effect occurs because the group leader is generally a greater risk-taker, who urges the other members of the group take more risks. However, this explanation seems inadequate because it assumes that all group leaders are greater risk-takers.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 39 Cultural Impact: A final situational aspect of risk-taking behavior is the cultural situation in which the risk-taker acts. the desire to maximize gain and minimize loss plays an important role both in the nature of the risk taken and the behavior of the risk-taker. Rettig and Rawson ( 1963 ) concluded that the fear of being caught doing something socially wrong was more important to the risk-taker than the probability of gain In other words, culture-related situations affect the risk-taking disposition of the individual . Carney and Carney ( 1971 ) examined the impact of cultural mores on the risk-taking propensity of the individual. They argued that culture has a negative as well as a positive impact; that is culture could be an inhibiting factors in risk-taking as well as a factor which promotes risk-taking tendencies

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 40 Personality Factors: Slavic and Lichtenstein ( 1968 ) have argued that individual personality traits are as important as situational factors in risk-taking behavior. This aspect of risk-taking was further confirmed by Nygren ( 1976 ) indeed, investigators are in their view that personality characteristics are an integral part of one’s risk-taking behavior. Lanzetta and Karanaff ( 1962 )point out that amount of information an individual seeks before taking a risk depends on the risk-taking disposition of the individual. For example, it is reported that field Marshall Montgomery was a very cautious commander who would seek out a large amount of enemy intelligence before launching an attack, whereas general Patton would work with a lesser amount of information about the enemy before he undertook his Operations. The result was that Montgomery had fewer casualties and much less Conquered territory, compared to Patton’s heavy this section considers the various kinds of personality factors which impinge upon the risk-taking domain. based on the ideas that risk-taking cannot be dissociated from personality factors and characteristics, this section will focus on the effects on risk-taking of differences in an individual’s sex, age, profession values, anxiety level, and creativity .

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 41 Sex: The extent to which sex differences are a factor in risk-taking behavior is still unclear. Appenfels and Hays (1961) pointed out that it is a wide-spread belief in American society that males demonstrate a greater willingness to take risks than females. Tuddenham (1951b) indicated that elementary school children consider the typical boy as more daring than the typical girl. Furthermore, Tuddenham (1951a) found boldness to be positively correlated with popularity for males and negatively correlated for females.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 42 Age: While the influence of sex on risk-taking behavior is debatable, studies have indicated that age is clearly a critical factor in risk taking. Noel (1983) conducted a questionnaire study with 337 males and 224 females, 14-98 years old. Age was found to be a significant factor affecting risk taking, whether the individual was dealing with family or friends, demonstrating that younger subjects take greater risk, while old subjects tend to be more cautious.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 43 Values: Another aspect of personality which affects risk-taking behavior is the value system of the individual. In risk-taking, the values of the individual are deeply involved. For instance, if the principal of a school believes that education must keep free from the involvement of either church or state, he or she will be willing to take a stand against any interference from either direction, despite pressure from the community or from a vocal group. In other words, people take risks when their principles are involve, for principles are an integral part of one's personality. It is principles, ideals, or beliefs that make one seek a better order and take risks to achieve it. Furthermore, the individual's system of values determines the degree to which he or she is willing to take risks.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 44 Profession: It appears that an individual's profession also affects the risk-taking disposition of his or her personality. In a study dealing with the professions and social classes, Scodel, Minas and Tatoosh (1959) compared university students with enlisted military personnel and found that the military personnel showed a much greater risk-taking disposition than the college students. This finding would further confirm the notion that an individual's life situation has a role in determining his or her risk-taking propensity. One may argue that since military personnel are engaged, by training and circumstance, in dealing with situation of uncertainty, they tend to be greater risk-takers; whereas, the university students, face with a limited range of uncertainty, reveal a much lesser degree of risk-taking behavior. On the other hand, it is possible that individuals with a higher propensity toward risk-taking tend to choose the military than school.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 45 Anxiety: Risk-taking and anxiety has been a major focus of research, but studies have reported conflicting findings on the effect of anxiety on risk-taking. Janis (1955), Casey (1969), Kusyszyn et al (1973) found that individuals with high anxiety show low risk-taking dispositions. These findings were supported by Kogan and Wallach (1964) in their studies. However, Atkinson (1957) showed that the relationship between anxiety and risk-taking disposition was not so simple. Atkinson pointed out that initially, high anxiety individuals tended to be high risk-takers, but that they would soon reach a plateau and thereafter the relationship was downhill (i.e., sharply negative). The curve for the relationship was an inverted "U". This finding supports the idea that high anxiety individuals use risk-taking as an initial means to overcome anxiety, but that anxiety sets in, they realize that risk-taking is not a solution to their problems.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 46 Creativity: Creativity is another area that has been investigated by researchers of risk-taking behavior. The association between creativity and risk-taking emerged in the work of Haefele (1962), who considered risk-taking as one basic dimensions of creativity. It was followed by Anderson and Cropley's (1966) assertion that the construct of risk of risk-taking is a non-intellectual element in creativity. Among others who have confirmed this assertion are Eisenman (1969) and Rossman and Horn (1972). Eisenman (1969) found risk-taking to be an integral part of creativity; and Rossman and Horn characterized creativity and risk-taking as one of the 17 important attributes of a creative talent.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 47 Creativity and Education in Saudi Arabia Some individuals possess an innate talent which , unfortunately, gats stifled, distracted and thwarted in education systems that emphasize convergent thinking and discourage, sometimes enormously, the more rewarding divergent thinking which is beneficial for both the individual and society. The complexity of modern life, the growing of population, and the development of science and technology urge our society to establish quality as well as quantity of education. Moreover, there is no doubt that the creative thinking programmed somehow will eventually be include in Saudi Arabian school curriculum, because there is a growing interest in promoting and sustaining the creative thinking as well as problem solving in classrooms of the Saudi Arabian educational school system. This interest is due to a change in outlook on the desired outcomes of creativity in learning.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 48 Research and development concerning the creative thinking function is quiet elementary and fragmentally in Saudi Arabia school system. Reasons suggested for this neglect of the study of creativity and this development are the failure to understand and appreciate the role of creative functioning in the various endeavors of life, together with lack of facilities for the steady of creative thinking. The school day is already crowded with many diverse missions, yet creativity and creative thinking features little. One of the cardinal principles of education is to influence the student to become a more effective individual in society, and it is felt that creative thinking can made an important contribution to this end.

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 49 Risk-taking behavior seems clearly a factor in creativity. This conclusion is not surprising, since, as we have seen, risk-taking is a result of a complex configuration of the situational and personality factors of the risk-taker. It appears then; the risk-taking behavior is a factor in creativity, as well as in antisocial acts and vices. This result is not surprising since--as we have seen--risk taking is a result of a complex configuration of the situational and personality factors of the risk-taker. Conclusion

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Risk-Taking as a Factor of Creative Thinking Prof. Alsafi, ACA International Conference 2006 55 Thanks Q & A

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