seventh meeting

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 1

Introduction:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 2 Introduction We will discuss Writing a report Constructive criticism

Writing a report :

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 3 Writing a report A report: a structured document, consisting of a factual description of something observed, undertaken or investigated. Report often aims to describe, explain, or persuade, and to provide an answer to a given or implied question.

Writing a report …continued :

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 4 Writing a report …continued A report is a form of communication, and communication involves three major aspects:  telling, or writing (involves the author)  listening to, or reading (involves the audience)  understanding (which involves the author and the audience). The author should be aware of the audience’s knowledge and perspective.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 5 Writing a report …continued  The purpose of a report for the author The priorities in considering this aspect of your writing are that you have a good understanding yourself of the topic, that you know the purposes of a report, and that you know who the audience of a report will be.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 6 Writing a report …continued  The purpose of a report for the audience audiences may have different levels of background knowledge in, and experience of, the subject matter of the report. Audiences can be tutors, mangers and clients.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 7 Writing a report …continued The structure of a report

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 8 Writing a report …continued The process of drafting a report 1- Some writers prefer to write a rough draft and then refine it. A rough draft contains only headings and brief notes. 2- Write items in complete sentences and structure those into paragraphs, or use lists.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 9 Writing a report …continued 3- Check that the language is appropriate for the intended audience. Have you used any technical terms that need to be explained? Have you spelled out abbreviations or symbols? Check for ambiguity. Are your sentences grammatical? Are your sentences grouped sensibly into paragraphs?

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 10 Writing a report …continued 4- You will need to check that you have the right level of detail in the report by putting detail in an appendix, the writer leaves the reader the choice of whether to look at it or not, depending upon the reader’s interest or need. 5- Rewrite your draft as needed.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 11 Writing a report …continued Style and related issues  Report length: if a report exceeds this limit, you need to pare it down if there is detailed material in the body of the report that can be moved to an appendix.  Grammar and spelling: most word processors include grammar and spelling checkers. go through your text yourself, and look specifically for grammatical errors

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 12 Writing a report …continued  Abbreviations spell out an abbreviation or acronym in full the first time you use it. If you are using a lot of abbreviations then it is helpful to include a list of abbreviations and acronyms as one of the appendices to the report.  Technical terms and specialized vocabulary Reports can be technical documents written for a specialist audience  Lists: listing items gives them greater prominence than they would have if they appear in normal text.

Writing a report …continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 13 Writing a report …continued  Slang, ‘text speak’ and jargon slang expressions, colloquial words and ‘text speak’ should never be used in a report.  Figures and tables A figure should never be used in a report without an explanatory caption, and any part of the body of illustrate it as ‘… as shown in Figure x’. Tables should also use good explanatory headings, be captioned, and mentioned or referred to in the body of the text.

Constructive criticism:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 14 Constructive criticism  Constructive criticism, which should enable each person, whether as an individual or as a member of a team, to improve their own practice and performance, is aimed at improving future practice.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 15 Constructive criticism…continued  There are several important points for both parties – the critic and the recipient of the criticism – to remember and act upon Avoid making criticism personal: focus on the problem instead of the person. Avoid emotive language and expressing personal feelings. Remember that constructive criticism may not be aimed at a ‘problem’ so much as at achieving some improvement.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 16 Constructive criticism…continued  emotive language: is any language that communicates human emotions. Language can be neutral or emotive, and emotive language can be positive or negative.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 17 Constructive criticism…continued A number of aspects influence whether language can be considered emotive or not: 1- subjectivity (how someone feels about something) versus objectivity (how a completely uninvolved outsider might view something). 2- facts (which are verifiable) versus opinions (which are subjective).

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 18 Constructive criticism…continued 3- tone (of voice when speaking, or written analogues such as the heavy use of exclamation marks, heavy underlining, using all capital letters in emails). 4- denotation (the ‘dictionary’ meaning of words) versus connotation (implied meaning of words).

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 19 Constructive criticism…continued Planning what to say before giving criticism helps keep the criticism bounded and reasonable. Accepting criticism but reserving the right to ask for clarification or to state reasons why something happened is of key importance.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 20 Constructive criticism…continued Acknowledging where one is wrong is also helpful to the process of giving and receiving criticism. Wherever possible. constructive criticism should result in concrete suggestions for ways to improve. a constructive criticism session is designed to end in one of two ways: an agreement as to what the problem was that elicited the criticism or an agreement to carry out certain actions.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 21 Constructive criticism…continued As a critic, you need to: identify the problem and figure out what the desired outcome should be before beginning any criticism session; be certain what it is you want to say to general, less focused, criticisms – e.g. a person’s annoying habits); if you can, choose a good time (unrushed, relaxed for both parties) in which to offer any criticism.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 22 Constructive criticism…continued give the recipient time and space to respond to your criticism. hear the person out (if you respond to the response, keep the tone of your response un-emotive: this should not become a battle of personalities, wills or opinions);

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 23 Constructive criticism…continued do mention the positive aspects of the topic you are focusing on; but be careful not to mix your negative and positive messages so that it is difficult for the recipient to decide whether what is being criticized is seen by you as acceptable or not; try to make positive suggestions for improvement as a part of your criticism.

Constructive criticism…continued:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 24 Constructive criticism…continued As the recipient of constructive criticism: remain, or make yourself, calm and try to relax; try to receive the criticism in the spirit in which it is intended: as being helpful; do not interrupt unless your critic has invited you to, but if you need to, take brief notes so you will not forget any points you want to discuss or have clarified; accept your critic’s viewpoint and thank them for what they have just told you (it has probably been as hard for them to tell you as it is for you to receive the message).

Summary:

1 April 2011 M253 Team working in distributed environments- Prepared by Mrs.Nedaa Hisham 25 Summary Writing a report -a structured document, consisting of a factual description of something observed, undertaken or investigated. Constructive criticism which should enable each person, whether as an individual or as a member of a team, to improve their own practice and performance, is aimed at improving future practice. Read The resource sheets carefully. ------------------------------------------------- Good luck and Have fun

authorStream Live Help