Vocabulary

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Building Academic Vocabulary : 

Building Academic Vocabulary Jen Madison jmadison@esu6.org See http://manila.esu6.org/jmadison for the complete PowerPoint presentation and other vocabulary resources!

Guiding Questions : 

Guiding Questions What is the effect of direct vocabulary instruction on student achievement? What is one effective strategy for the direct instruction of vocabulary?

Why Vocabulary Instruction? : 

Why Vocabulary Instruction? Background knowledge is a strong indicator of academic success. Factors correlated to vocabulary General measures of intelligence One’s ability to comprehend new information Level of income

Why Vocabulary Instruction? : 

Why Vocabulary Instruction? Vocabulary knowledge is one of the best indicators of verbal ability (Sternberg, 1987; Terman, 1916). Teaching vocabulary can improve reading comprehension for both native English speakers (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982) and English learners (Carlo et al., 2004). Disadvantages students are likely to have substantially smaller vocabularies than their more advantaged classmates (Templin, 1957; White, Graves, & Slater, 1990). Lack of vocabulary can be a crucial factor underlying the school failure of disadvantaged students (Becker, 1977; Biemiller, 1999). (Graves, 2006)

Why Direct Instruction? : 

Why Direct Instruction? National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.cfm “instruction does lead to gains in comprehension, but that methods must be appropriate to the age and ability of the reader” balance of indirect & direct vocabulary instruction importance of repetition & multiple exposure to items variety of direct instruction strategies

Why Vocabulary Instruction? : 

Why Vocabulary Instruction? Marzano et. al. (2001.) Classroom Instruction That Works. Alexandria, VA: McREL. 12 percentile gain with any direct instruction 33 percentile gain with systematic direct instruction of words in passage

Effect Sizes : 

Effect Sizes Control Group

Guiding Questions : 

Guiding Questions What is the effect of direct vocabulary instruction on student achievement? What is one effective strategy for the direct instruction of vocabulary?

Personal Reflection : 

Personal Reflection What are my criteria for choosing words? If someone were to ask my students how they learn new words in my class, what would the students say? How do I encourage vocabulary learning for the long term?

Different Kinds of Words Require Different Kinds of Instruction! : 

Different Kinds of Words Require Different Kinds of Instruction! Learning a basic oral vocabulary Learning to read known words Learning new words representing known concepts Learning new words representing new concepts Learning new meanings for known words Clarifying and enriching the meanings of known words Moving words into students’ expressive vocabularies Building English learners’ vocabularies (Graves, 2006)

Word Hierarchy : 

Word Hierarchy (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)

Some Criteria : 

Some Criteria (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p.19) Unknown words Importance & utility Instructional Potential Conceptual Understanding (Graves, 2004, p. 68) Unknown words Importance of word to understanding selection Use of context or structural analysis skills Utility of word outside particular selection

Some Criteria (Marzano, 2001; Marzano, 2004) : 

Some Criteria (Marzano, 2001; Marzano, 2004) “Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning” (Marzano, 2001). Powerful Choices “have a high probability of enhancing academic success” emphasized in reading critical for understanding text or concept Essential vs. supplemental Limited Words

Limited Words (Marzano, 2001, p. 122) : 

Limited Words (Marzano, 2001, p. 122)

Personal Reflection Forward Thinking : 

Personal Reflection Forward Thinking What are my criteria for choosing words? If someone were to ask my students how they learn vocabulary in my class, what would the students say? How do I encourage vocabulary learning for the long term?

What does the literature say? : 

What does the literature say? Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions. Teaching word parts enhances understanding. Different types of words require different types of instruction. Active engagement improves learning. Repeated exposure is essential.

One Proven Process : 

One Proven Process Marzano, R. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher’s manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Characteristics of Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction : 

Characteristics of Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways. Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures. Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms. Different types of words require different types of instruction. Students should discuss the terms they are learning. Students should play with words. Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success.

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Engage students in word activities Discuss words Engage student “play” with words Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation

Experience & Observe : 

Experience & Observe Strategy observer What steps/processes did you observe? Participant observer What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice? Participants What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?

sesquipedalian : 

sesquipedalian etymology (analysis of word origins & parts) sesqui (Latin, half as much again) ped (foot) -ian (one that is, one who) a long word for a long word Examples: antidisestablishmentarianism pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis floccinaucinihilipilification

sesquipedalian : 

sesquipedalian Everything that coruscates with effulgence is not ipso facto aurous . --All that glitters is not gold. http://www.wordsources.info/words-mod-sesquipedalian-1-16.html “Nancy and Sluggo”

Please answer: : 

Please answer: Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms?

Experience & Observe : 

Experience & Observe Strategy observer What steps/processes did you observe? Participant observer What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice? Participants What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation Caution! Monitor understanding carefully May require more than one session

The Case Against Providing Only Dictionary Definitions : 

The Case Against Providing Only Dictionary Definitions When people first learn words, they understand them more as descriptions as opposed to definitions (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)

Slide 27: 

Research on Imagery as Elaboration Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed… # of studies (Pickering, 2007)

magnify : 

magnify word parts: magn (large, great) -ify (v. to do)

antagonist : 

antagonist Etymology anta-, against agon, contest -ist, “one who”

antagonist : 

antagonist Etymology anta-, against agon, contest -ist, “one who”

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Engage students in word activities Discuss words Engage student “play” with words Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation

Personal Reflection : 

Personal Reflection What are my criteria for choosing words? If someone were to ask my students how they learn new words in my class, what would my students say? How do I encourage vocabulary learning for the long term?

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Engage students in word activities Discuss words Engage student “play” with words Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation

Massed vs. Distributed Practice : 

Massed vs. Distributed Practice 24 focused practices to achieve 80% competency (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, Instructional Strategies that Work, p. 67)

A Quick Note: Student Note Taking : 

A Quick Note: Student Note Taking Organized Cumulative Published templates www.ASCD.org Teacher-created Use tables in Word Student notebooks Designated section of notebook Students must be able to adjust and build on their understanding of words.

ASCD. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary: Student Notebook. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://shop.ascd.org/productdisplay.cfm?productid=105154e : 

ASCD. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary: Student Notebook. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://shop.ascd.org/productdisplay.cfm?productid=105154e

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Engage students in word activities Discuss words Engage student “play” with words Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation

Discussion & Activities : 

Discussion & Activities Reading, writing, speaking, listening Think-Pair-Share Free association Word displays / word walls, word encounters Similarities & differences, classification Metaphors, analogies Sentence Strings ____ and ____ are similar because … ____ and ____ are different because… ____ is ____, but ___ is ____. The skiing teacher said Maria was a novice on the ski slopes because…

Discussion & Activities : 

Discussion & Activities Graphic Organizers Concept Map Semantic Mapping Frayer Model Comparison Matrix

Slide 40: 

Essential Characteristics Examples NON-examples Non-essential Characteristics

Student Sample : 

Student Sample

(Allen, 1999) : 

(Allen, 1999)

(Allen, 1999) : 

(Allen, 1999)

Student Discussion : 

Student Discussion Individual to Group Identify & share favorite, most interesting word Pairs Students compare entries for difficult words and agree on their information: What’s true, false, new, confusing? Cooperative Groups Take turns identifying difficult term, others provide information

Games : 

Games 3 Distinguishing Characteristics (Covington, 1992) Present manageable challenges Arouse curiosity Involve some degree of imagination, fantasy When? Periodic review rather than new words Sponge activities Remember Use competition consciously!

Games : 

Games Jeopardy Show graphics one at a time until students can answer: “What is…” http://www.marzanoandassociates.com/html/resources.htm Charades “Name That Category” ($100,000 Pyramid) Pictionary Taboo Crosswords Others?

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process : 

Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process Engage students in word activities Discuss words Engage student “play” with words Introduce word Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning Students create nonlinguistic representation

Personal Reflection : 

Personal Reflection What are my criteria for choosing words? If someone were to ask my students how they learn new words in my class, what would the students say? How do I encourage vocabulary learning for the long term?

Learning Summary : 

Learning Summary Guiding Questions: What is the effect of direct vocabulary instruction on student achievement? What is one effective strategy for the direct instruction of vocabulary? So what? What are the implications of this research and this method in your practice? What questions must be answered? What barriers must be removed?

Resources : 

Resources Jen’s Website http://manila.esu6.org/jmadison/vocabulary Allen, J. (1999). Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12. Beck, I., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. Graves, M.F. (2006). The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction. Marzano, R.J. (2004). Building Academic Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement. Reading First. (2004). A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction. Vaughn, S. & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction: Grades K-3.

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