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WHY BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Research conducted in 2000 by the National Association of College Employers (NACE) identified the top ten characteristics employers seek in a job candidate . No 1 was Communication Skills, followed by motivation/initiative and team work skills.


WHY B C… A survey of 224 recent business graduates ranked communication as the most important area of knowledge both for securing employment after graduation and for advancement and promotion once on the job.

WHY B C ...:

WHY B C ... A survey of 6000 people conducted by Young Executive magazine found that the most annoying habit of American bosses was poor communication. A survey of 200 corporate vice presidents reported they spend the equivalent of nearly three months a year writing correspondence and reports.

WHY B C ...:

WHY B C ... Eighty percent of the managers at 402 firms surveyed nationwide said that most of their employees need to improve their writing skills, up from 65% previous year. But only 21% of the firms offered training in writing skills.

WHY B C...:

WHY B C... Half of all MBA Programs require students to take a managerial communication course, with most of others recommending it.

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WHY B C... “ One of the most surprising features of the information revolution is that the momentum has turned back to the written word.” - Hoyt Hudson, VP, Information Systems, InterAcess.

Why B C:

Why B C “ You can have a greatest technical skills in the world, but without solid communication skills, who will know and who can understand? Communication skills are ever- evolving skill set. You never have enough practice. - Kevin Jettson, President, GeniSys Consulting Services.


(SESSION-1) UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS COMMUNICATION (UNIT-1) What is business Communication: Derived from Latin word 'communis' meaning- common. It stands for natural activity of all human beings to convey, opinion, feelings, information & ideas through words, body language or signs.


Definition George Vardman, Effective Communication of Ideas, “purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and the receiver of the message”.


Definition Robert Anderson, Professional Selling, “ Communication is interchange of thoughts, opinions or information, by speech, writing or signs”.


Definition Allen Louis, “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another;it involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding”.

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Communication is the sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages Sometimes through written or spoken words Sometimes through such nonverbal means as facial expressions, gestures, and voice qualities.




THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION THE STIMULUS: In order for communication to take place there must be a stimulus, an event that creates within an individual The need to communicate. This stimulus can be internal or external. An internal stimulus is simply an idea that forms within your mind. External stimuli come to you through your sensory organs- eyes, years, nose, mouth & skin


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION THE FILTER: If everyone has the same perception of the message your job of communicating would be easier. Each person has a unique perception of reality, based on his or her individual experiences, culture, emotions at the moment, personality,knowledge, socioeconomic status and a host of other variables. These variables at as a filter in shaping everyone's unique impression of reality.


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION THE MESSAGE: The extent to which any communication effort achieves its desired goal depends upon very directly on how well you construct the message. Success at communicating depends not only on the purpose and content of the message but also, just as important, on how skillful you know your audience and how much you hold in common with your audience.


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION THE MEDIUM: Once the sender has encoded a message, the next process in the step is to transmit that message to the receiver. At this point, the sender must choose the form of message send, or medium. Oral messages might be transmitted through a staff meeting, personal conference, telephone conversation, press conference, voice mail or as through informal means grapevine.


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION Written messages might be transmitted through a memorandum, a report, a letter, a contract, a brochure, email, newsletter, a press release, or an addition to the policies and procedures manual. Non verbal message might be transmitted through facial expression, gestures, or body movement.


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION THE DESTINATION: The message is transmitted and then enters the sensory environment of the receiver, at which point control passes from the sender to the receiver. Once the message reaches its destination, there is no guarantee that the message will reach its destination. We are constantly bombard with stimuli and our sensory organ pick up only part of them.


THE COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION Even assuming your receiver does perceive your message, you have no assurance that it will be interpreted (filtered) as you intended.

Process of Communication:



VERBAL COMMUNICATION It is the ability to communicate by using word that separates human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom. It is one of the most common functions in business One needs to be effective for Verbal Communication Skill Listening skills is also important for success of verbal communication


WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Ways of written communication: Email Website Memorandums Letters Reports

(SESSION-2)Directions of Communication:

(SESSION-2) Directions of Communication Formal Communication Network: Within the organization information may be transmitted from superiors to subordinate, from subordinate to superiors among people at the same level among people at the different departments within the organization, these four types of communication make up the organization's formal communication network.

Formal Communication Network:

Formal Communication Network Downward Communication Upward Communication Horizontal Communication Cross Channel Communication

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Horizontal Communication: Flow of information among peers within the same work unit It helps coordinate work environment Share info on plans and activities It develops inter-personal support

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Cross Channel Communication: Exchange of info among employees in different work units who are neither subordinate nor superiors to one another. Like Responsibility involving many departments within the organization Ex. HR Dept encouraging employee to complete a job satisfaction questionnaire.

Informal Communication Network:

Informal Communication Network Grapevine: Transmission through non-official channel Within the organization At any place, at any time, at any work Out of 80% information 75-90% is accurate At every level Information moves most rapidly Vital part of organization


BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Verbal Barriers: Inadequate Knowledge/vocabulary Differences in interpretation Language Differences Inappropriate Expression- Jargon/Euphemisms Over-abstraction/Ambiguity Polarization

Nonverbal Barriers:

Nonverbal Barriers Inappropriate or Conflicting Signals Differences in perception Inappropriate emotions Distractions

Ethics in Communication:

Ethics in Communication REFER BOOK (PAGE 22/SCOT OBER) Defamation-injuring a person's name or reputation Invasion of Privacy Fraud and misrepresentation(innocent statement) False Statement-Active Fraud Concealing Facts- Passive Fraud Is this message true Does it exaggerate Does it have obscure information Promising which cannot be delivered Does it betray a confidence Does it play unduly on the fears of the reader (Recovery Messages) Does it reflect the wishes of the organization.


(SESSION-3) COMMUNICATING IN WORKTEAMS A team is a group of individuals A team depends on one another to accomplish a common objective A team is often superior to individual A team can accomplish more work that an individual A team is more creative Has more information More interpersonal communication dynamics Creates sy nergy which increases total output


THE VARIABLES OF GROUP COMMUNICATION Three factors: Conflict Conformity Consensus Greatly affect the efficiency with which a team operates.


Conflict... Clash of Interest Clash of Likeness Clash of Choices Clash of Priorities Clash of Information Clash of Roles Clash of Values Clash of Selfishness Clash of Selflessness Clash of Belongings


Conflict Conflict is greatly misunderstood facet of group communication Conflict can cause distraction from the group's goal Group can use conflict productively to generate and test ideas Presence of conflict indicates active participation Conflict is the essence of group interaction It is a means to determine what is acceptable and what is not.


Conformity Conformity is agreement with regard to ideas, rules and principles. Members may be encouraged to disagree about the definition of a problem or possible solutions. Certain fundamental issues -such as how the group should operate-should be agreed upon


Consensus Consensus means reaching a decision that best reflects the thinking of all team members It is finding a solution that is acceptable enough that all members can support it (though with reservations) No member actively opposes it.

Initial Group Goals:

Initial Group Goals Group members should know each members strength and weaknesses Style of working Experience Attitudes Likes and dislikes Developing familiarity Giving constructive feedback Acknowledge the need for feedback

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Give both positive or negative feedback Learn how to give feedback (be descriptive, avoiding using levels like undependable, unprofessional, irresponsible, lazy)

Conflict Resolution:

Conflict Resolution Group should spend time in developing itself into a team Getting to know one another Establishing ground rules Discussing norms of group behavior Neither overreact nor under react to group problems Ignore behavior fleeting disruptions Don't get tempted by making scape goat of one member

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Rarely one person is solely responsible for success or failure of a group efforts Examine each problem in the light what group encourages Be realistic, identify the group DNA Treat others with respect Purpose of group is not making lifelong relations Competent communicator have acceptance

Team Writing:

Team Writing Preparing written responses especially applies to long or complex documents It needs a joint effort to analyze a given situation and generate proposals or recommendations Its prevalent in organization Writing teams should follow strategy Start by determining the goals/objective of the project Identify the reader

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Determine the components of the project Executing the research needed Meeting dead lines Dividing the task equitably based on SWOT of each individual Meet regularly to keep a track Keep track of new developments Asses Progress

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Renegotiate the work load and redefine tasks Gather initial data and develop an outline of the project Outline should keep the major and subordinate topics Beware of data dump Collect relevant information and utilize them

Nonverbal Communication:

Nonverbal Communication According to Management Expert Peter F Drucker- “ The most important in communication is to hear what isn't being said”.

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A Nonverbal message is any message that is not written or spoken The nonverbal message is an accompany to the verbal one (like smiling while greeting etc. More spontaneous than verbal message Verbal-7% Vs Nonverbal- 93% message conveying capacity.

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Body Movement: Face and eyes Facial expression Eye contact and eye movements Gestures: Hand and upper body movements It adds important information in face to face interactions Postures

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Placement of arms Placement of legs Distribution of weight Leaning slightly Leaning forward Leaning back

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Physical appearance: Our culture places a great value on physical appearance Television, news papers & magazines full of advertisements for personal care products Attractive people seem to be more intelligent, more likable, more persuasive than unattractive Good looking earn more money.

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Voice Quality: No one speaks in monotone Volume Speech,Pitch,Tone,Accent Display intentional and unintentional message


PITCH The pitch of the voice is defined as the "rate of vibration of the vocal folds" . The sound of the voice changes as the rate of vibrations varies. As the number of vibrations per second increases, so does the pitch, meaning the voice would sound higher. Faster rates form higher voices, or higher pitches, while slower rates elicit deeper voices, or lower pitches. How are these vibrations and pitches created? The vibrations, and the speed at which they vibrate, are dependent on the tightening and relaxation of the muscles surrounding them. This explains why women generally have higher voices than men do; women tend to have higher voices because they have shorter vocal cords. The length and thickness of the vocal cords, however, are not the only factors that affect one's pitch. The pitch of someone's voice can also be affected by emotions, moods and inflection. Interestingly, our emotions can also affect the pitch of our voices.


Tone The quality of a person's voice; "he began in a conversational tone"; "he spoke in a nervous tone of voice" It emphasizes, proclaims and clarifies and tells the listener just how important or serious you are about something. In speaking to animals or young children, tone lets them know when you are "playing" and when you demand to be taken serious. Please close the door...soft and making a statement, could be taken as a suggestion. verses: Close the door!, a direct command.

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Time: The meaning given to time varies greatly by culture Americans and Canadians are more time conscious Time by status Time is situation specific

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Space and Territory: Intimate Zone- 18 inches Personal Zone- 18 inches to 4 feet Social Zone- 4 feet to 12 feet Public Zone- 12 feet to as far as eyes can see

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Cultural Differences Read page no. 50 of Scot Ober Last Para.


Listening Listening involves more than hearing Hearing is only perceiving sound Hearing is passive process Listening is intentional Listening is active process When you listen you interpret and assign meaning to the sounds

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The problem of poor listening: Listening is the communication skill White collar workers devote 40% of their workday to listening Listening is probably the least developed of the four verbal communication skills- LSRW Most of the people have never been taught how to listen well Reading,writing,speaking are heavily stressed

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Another factor – disparity between the speed at which we normally speak and the speed at which our brain can process data We can think 4 times faster than we speak thus while listening others our minds wanders and we lose ability to concentrate on what is being said Poor listening is not as apparent as poor speaking or writing skills

Keys to better listening:

Keys to better listening Good news - you can improve your listening skills by 25-40% Give your speaker the undivided attention Stay open minded Avoid interrupting Involve yourself in communication Keep your emotions in check Don't jump to the conclusion quickly Ability to evaluate the message objectively Don't run by time pressures

(SESSION-4)Business Meetings:

(SESSION-4) Business Meetings Meetings serve a wide variety of purposes in the organization Meetings keep members informed of events and their duties Cohesiveness among members The average executive spends 70% of the day in meeting Conducting meeting is crucial managerial skill

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A survey of more than 2000 business leaders showed that the executive who run a meeting well are perceived to be better managers by both their superiors and their peers Planning the meeting Identifying purpose Identifying whether meeting is really necessary Preparing an agenda

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Deciding who should attend Planning and arrangements Agenda will accomplish two things: 1. it will help you prepare for the meeting 2. it will help you run the meeting by keeping you focused on your plan A survey of 2000 business leaders mentioned earlier revealed that the three-fourth of the managers consider agenda to be essential for efficient meetings


Agenda Minutes of previous meeting Reports of officers and standing committees Reports of special committees Old business New business Announcements Program Time division List of attendees

Conducting the meeting:

Conducting the meeting Following the agenda Leading the meeting Following up the meeting

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Track of time as in agenda Equipped Room Seating arrangements Begin meeting with the purpose Minutes are official records of the meeting The minutes should be accurate, objective and complete

Agenda for the board meeting of ABC Products of March 15, 2010, at 9.00 hrs., location New York office:

Agenda for the board meeting of ABC Products of March 15, 2010, at 9.00 hrs., location New York office Opening/Welcome (9.00 - 9.05) Announcements and documents received (Information / 9.05 - 9.20) Approval of minutes of meeting held March 12, 2010, and action list (Approval / 9.20 - 9.35) Launch of new products - see attached schedule (Mr. Smith / Information / 9.35 - 9.45) New company car policy - see attached draft policy (Mrs. Watson / Discussion / 9.45 - 10.15) Financial report of February - see attached draft report (Mr. Fletcher / Resolution / 10.15 - 10.25) Any other business (10.25 - 10.40) Adjournment (10.40 - 10.45)

Business Etiquette:

Business Etiquette It is the practice of polite and appropriate behavior in the business setting It is really concerned with interaction between people Each organization has its own rules in terms of dress, ways of addressing superiors, punctuality The higher you advance in career the more important such behavior will become

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Business etiquette differs in many ways from social etiquette Good manners are good business It communicates a strong positive message about you as a person You will please some people and astonish the rest Meeting and greeting Use a person's name in the conversation to help remember it

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Dining Etiquette (Page 74) Giving Gifts (Page 75) Dressing Appropriately- you should choose well-tailored, clean, conservative clothing for the work place.

(Session-5)Communication Technology:

(Session-5) Communication Technology 1) Case study-1/ BC

Accessing Electronic Information:

Accessing Electronic Information The entire knowledge industry has evolved in which organizations store huge amounts of statistical, financial, and bibliographic information in the memory banks of their computers or on compact disks and then make this information available to users worldwide for a fee

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An electronic database is a computer search able collection of information on a general subject area, such as business, education or psychology. Electronic databases are fast; you can typically collect more data electronically in an hour than would be possible in an entire day of conventional library research

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The Internet: The internet is a vast information system that connects millions of computers worldwide. It allows them to exchange all types of information It supports and conduct many types of business transactions, such as online banking and shopping It makes available different forms and formats of business and education

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One can send and receive email, transfer files between computers Search for information Participate in discussion groups (Ex. Capital market) You can conduct a comprehensive search for data without ever leaving your office via online computer searching Much of the information we need is too new to be available in printed form

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One of the most pressing strategic questions facing e-commerce sites in the struggle to become profitable is how to turn browsers into buyers Alissa Kozuh, editor of Norstrom.com analyzes the words that people put into the site's search engine every month (all 45000 of them) to understand what customers are looking for (their psychology and buying perception & behavior)

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Chances are that very information you need is stored somewhere on the internet. You have to learn how to access it

Internet Resources:

Internet Resources Discussion groups on the internet allow you to participate in interactive, ongoing discussions on a particular topic with people all over the the world 1) Mailing list 2) News group

Mailing List:

Mailing List A mailing list is a discussion group in which messages are sent directly to members via email. On the Internet, these mailing lists are called listservs. To become a member you must first subscribe to the list (typically by sending an email message to the listserver) From then on, any message posted to the list are automatically sent to your email address.

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Listservs are usually created to enable members to exchange information and views about a particular topic Ex- Your professor may create a mailing list for your class. Any message posted to that mailing list either by the instructor or by one of the students will then be sent to all the members of the class Such list can be terminated at the end of the course Some permanent mailing lists provide search able archive files that contain all the old messages


Newsgroup A newsgroup is a discussion group in which messages (called articles) are posted at the news group site. Anyone can connect to the site via an internet connection as frequently as desired to read any new posted articles Newsgroups differ from mailing lists in that newsgroup members have to visit the newsgroup site to see any new message whereas new messages are automatically sent as email to mailing list members

Browsing and Searching the Internet:

Browsing and Searching the Internet Browsing the internet: Web directories are hyper-linked lists of Web sites Hierarchically organized into topical categories and subcategories Clicking your way through these lists will lead you to Web site links for the subject you are investigating

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Searching the internet: Web indexs are massive Computer generated databases containing information on millions of web pages By entering keywords or phrases, you can find out the list of web pages that contain your search term The success of your internet search will depend on how skillfully you choose your key words (or search terms) Remember that the computer makes a very literal search

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It will find exactly what you ask for – and nothing more Anyone with access to the internet can post pretty much anything that one wants online. There is no law, regulation, or internet policy that states that the information posted on internet has to be true, objective, intelligent, or politically correct Remember there is no central authority for managing the internet Be careful while evaluating the quality of electronic information

Fax Communication:

Fax Communication According to Maury Kauffman author of Computer Based Fax Processing- Fax machines are the one true global communications standard. They are fast, inexpensive, easy to use, and available worldwide.

Communicating by telephone:

Communicating by telephone Speaking on the telephone: Sit or stand tall and avoid chewing gum or eating while talking If your head is tilted sideways to cradle the phone between your head and shoulder, your throat is strained and the words may sound unclear Keep a pen and pad near the phone for note taking Pick up immediately, don't give impression your company doesn't care its callers

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Brief about your company, department and yourself, you may give same greeting 50 times, but each caller listens you probably once Use positive language. Instead of saying, “I don't know”, say -”Let me check and call you right back” and then do it Always remember you represent a company

Voice mail:

Voice mail Before you call, recognize that you might have to leave a message so plan it out beforehand Be polite and get to the point quickly Clearly define the purpose of the call and desired action Always give you phone no even if the one has it Slowdown and speak especially clearly Your customer, suppliers and fellow workers deserve more consideration Check your messages daily and return calls promptly

Cell phone:

Cell phone Never answer while driving-life is above all with no retake Speak clearly Get to the point quickly Use vibration mode in office, meeting, conference,etc. If disconnected, redial if you initiated the call or wait for other party to redial if you have received it Cell phones are not secure and should not be used to discuss confidential information

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Teleconferencing Videoconferencing

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