Family Language Handbook final

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Family Language Handbook:

Family Language Handbook Marisa LaPiana George Mason University


Congratulations! information resources activities considerations


Family Diversity Linguistic Cultural Ability Family Education Tips Born Learning

Language Acquisition:

Language Acquisition Typical & Atypical “ What you might find” “Together Time” Acts and Aspects Additional Resources

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Get involved! Book Lottery Monthly Activities Literacy Bag

Atypical Language Development:

Atypical Language Development Form, Content, Use Autism Spectrum Disorder Specific Language Impairment ASD click SLI click

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Diverse Learners dual language simultaneous language 2nd language English as an Additional Language Dialect Diversity African American English Ability Diversity EAL click DD click AD click

English as an Additional Language Learners:

English as an Additional Language Learners Children exposed to two languages from birth have two separate but interconnected linguistic systems. There is no scientific evidence that children’s language learning ability is limited to one language. Dominance or unbalanced development of the two language is expected and typical in bilingual acquisition, particularly among preschoolers. Bilingual code mixing, or using the elements of two languages in the same utterance or stretch of conversation, is a typical pattern of language use among bilingual children and adults; and not a cause for concern. C hildren acquire phonological and grammatical proficiency and build vocabularies in their second language slowly; they do not “soak language up like a sponge.” They may even go through a nonverbal period when in first contact with the new language. D ual language children should be given full support, affective and linguistic, to learn both languages fully wherever possible. Continuous, consistent and rich exposure to both languages is important for full dual language development.

Autism Spectrum Disorder:

Autism Spectrum Disorder Additional Resource Atypical development language consequences : impaired social reciprocity and communication absence of language or significant delay of onset impaired patterns of conversational initiation and response stereotypical and repetitive language use absence of dramatic play or severe delay given chronological age problems with pragmatics, gaze , joint attention, and facial expressiveness echolia : immediate or delayed repetition of the speech of others

Dialect Diversity:

Dialect Diversity African American English AAE Books for Youth

Specific Language Impairment:

Specific Language Impairment Six techniques for working with children with SLI : Imitation Modeling Focused stimulation Conversational recasting Expansion Scaffolding Additional Resource How to help: address specific difficulties that a child exhibits target expressive vocabulary, morphology, and syntax target receptive syntax and varying rhetorical genres for older children use meaningful and motivating examples particular to the child explain , practice in new contexts and domains, review, reteach and practice more

Ability Diversity: Hearing and Speech:

Ability Diversity: Hearing and Speech Effects of Hearing Loss on Development Age appropriate hearing, speech and language milestones Additional Resource Additional Resource

Acts of language:

Acts of language Expressive: producing one’s own language Receptive: taking on someone else’s language Meta-Linguistic: focus on the form of language What you might find EAL click

Acts of Language & English as an Additional Language Learners:

Acts of Language & English as an Additional Language Learners

Language Structure: Phonology “the sound”:

Language Structure: Phonology “the sound” Sow, sow, sow your soat sently sown the seam. Serrily, serrily, serrily, serrily; Sife is sut a seam. Together Time EAL click AD click DD click “What you might find” Row , row, row your boat gently down the stream. Merrily , merrily, merrily, merrily; Life is but a dream Bow , bow, bow your boat bently bown the beam. Berrily , berrily, berrily, berrily; Bife is but a beam.

Development of phonological structures:

Development of phonological structures Adult word Mug Bam Sap Vein Zap Ship Tiger Moon Bicycle Beautiful Click Spill Shot Jack Chain Thin This Rut Leg Trucking Child says Muck Baa Tap Bane Dap Sip Diger Moom Biskle Byuful Kick Pill Tot Dack Tain Tin Dis What Weg or yeg chucking 3 ½ years old 4 years 5 years

Phonology & English as an Additional Language Learners :

Phonology & English as an Additional Language Learners

Phonology & Ability Diversity: Hearing Impairment:

Phonology & Ability Diversity: Hearing Impairment Effects of Hearing Loss on Development Additional Resource

Phonology and Dialect Diversity (AAE):

Phonology and Dialect Diversity (AAE) MAE : speakers acquire certain phonemes ahead of AAE speakers (t,d, interdentals) AAE: speakers acquire certain phonemes ahead of MAE speakers (s,r) MAE: focus on complex phonotactics, later acquire different segments AAE: focus on difficult segments, later acquire complete phonotactics Practice role play that identifies the social context that requires the target language, and help children realize when to switch dialects. You can also develop a slogan word to them help remember when to code switch. Together Time

Language Structure: Morphology “the meaning”:

Language Structure: Morphology “the meaning” 1. Model correct grammar, but don't correct. 2. Stand still, talk, listen & build on child’s response. 3. Make time to converse. Together Time Show children that many words have common origins, and that the meaning of the word can often be determined by examining the word’s parts. Create a list of words together and think of similar words that have a similar meaning and have similar roots. What you might find Morphological difficulties SLI click

Early Morphological Development:

Early Morphological Development Additional Resource

Morphological Difficulties:

Morphological Difficulties Children experiencing difficulties may: • use immature sentence construction (words may be in the wrong order) • have difficulty using pronouns correctly • have difficulty using connectives and articles in both speech and writing •use word endings (-ed, -ing, -s) incorrectly • have difficulty understanding when to use conjunctions and prepositions

Morphology & Specific Language Impairment:

Morphology & Specific Language Impairment Additional Resource

Language Structures : Syntax & Semantics “form and interpretation”:

Language Structures : Syntax & Semantics “form and interpretation” The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree He's a chip off the old block You hit the nail on the head I'm up to my ears in work We're all in the same boat It's a dog-eat-dog world It's raining cats and dogs Syntax: form of sentences, phrases and clauses. Semantics: interpretation of phrases and clauses. Together Time There are many expressions in English that are not meant to be interpreted literally. Discuss these expressions with your child and encourage them to think both about what these expressions really mean, and about what they would mean if the words were interpreted literally. “What you might find” SLI click ASD click

Commonly developing language structures:

Commonly developing language structures Structures Single Clause Indirect objects before and after direct objects Gerunds Questions: non subject wh - words with verbs before subjects Passive sentences, in questions, negatives Multi Cause Sentences: Clauses conjoined and, but Infinitive as object, with and without subordinating conjunction Finite clause as object, with and without subordinating conjunction Clause as modifier with and without subordinate conjunction Clause that is not at the end of a sentence More than two clauses Examples Tell me a story. Tell the story to the doll. Susan gave Harry a kiss. She gave kisses to the babies. Who made me a picture? Playing comes after lunch. I hate sleeping. Can we fit without pushing? Where did the cat go? Which one is it? Whose hat didn’t fit? Why won’t it work? What is dad doing? It isn’t time to go, is it? He was bit by ants all over. The window is broken. Come here and fix this. Jen ate and then she washed up. I like to go fast. Sandy needs me to drive it. You said I could/ I think it broke. I don’t eat what she cooks. I ran because I was scared. She tried hard so we won, Don't eave before we give out this candy. What she said is not funny. When he comes, we run. After we nap, we can play, can’t we? We want the story you read when you were here before.

Syntax/Semantics & Specific Language Impairment:

Syntax/Semantics & Specific Language Impairment

Syntax/Semantics & Autism Spectrum:

Syntax/Semantics & Autism Spectrum

Aspect of Language : Vocabulary:

Aspect of Language : Vocabulary 1. Breadth - how many words do you know? 2 . Depth - how much do you know about the words that you know? 3 . Speed - how fast can you get to the words that you know? Read aloud: -Choose from a broad range of books that provide illustrations and context to support word learning. - Expand on your child’s words: As you move throughout the day, expand on basic statements like “Look what I made,” with responses like “Oh, you painted a beautiful picture with such bright colors.” -Insert new words for familiar concepts: Insert new terms in subtle ways like “You’re looking a little drowsy, and it’s almost your bedtime, so let’s start your bath…” -Provide role-play opportunities: Use play telephones, puppets, and other props to encourage your child to express himself with oral language. Together Time ASD click SLI click EAL click

Vocabulary & English as an Additional Language Learners:

Vocabulary & English as an Additional Language Learners

Vocabulary & Specific Language Impairment:

Vocabulary & Specific Language Impairment

Vocabulary & Autism Spectrum:

Vocabulary & Autism Spectrum

Functions of Language : Pragmatics:

Functions of Language : Pragmatics A great way support a child’s development of pragmatics is in symbolic or dramatic play. Adults can assume a background role, and help to move the plot along as it fades in and out. Also puppet playing turn-taking conventions can help children understand Grecian maxim’s possible completion points . Inter-personal : Maxims : Quantity, Quality, Relation, Manner Turn-taking Speech Acts Intra-personal : Regulate cognitive and social emotional Together Time ASD click SLI click

Pragmatics & Autism Spectrum:

Pragmatics & Autism Spectrum Functions of language like pragmatics are barriers for all children with ASD. Difficulties related to; delayed inter-subjectivity, gaps in theory of mind and mutuality of communication. Weak interpersonal speech acts Graduations of direct/polite/urgent may not be used Unable to follow maxims in expressive acts Not interpreting conversational implicatures in receptive acts Turn taking gaps and overlaps are out of synch- and turns might be taken without topic and referential continuity relevance. What you might find

Pragmatics & Specific Language Impairment:

Pragmatics & Specific Language Impairment

Function of Language : Rhetoric:

Function of Language : Rhetoric Role play – adults and other children to model social situations at home, shopping, etc. Puppets – adults and children to model social situations through puppet plays and stories. Making faces – miming activities, specifically teaching children how to show feelings through facial expression. This could be part of miming scenes from well-known stories (e.g. the three little pigs being frightened of the wolf). Board games – these involve turn-taking . Multi-utterance and/or multi-person. Evaluated for power and beauty. Conventions: participants, topics, and choices about structures and vocabulary. Discourse genres : Type 1 = individual’s primary responsibility: narrative, expository, poetry etc . Type 2 =collection and collaboration among people: shared responsibility, test, lesson Together Time ASD click AD click

Rhetoric &: Cultural Variations in Narrative:

Rhetoric &: Cultural Variations in Narrative Narrative forms vary across cultures. Latino American Children are more likely than most other to focus on personal and family relationships, plot of events and resolution is of secondary importance. Working-class African American girls are more likely to use topic-associating narratives that link several episodes thematically. Their narratives also tend to have several principle characters and shifts in time and setting.

Social stories for children on the Autism Spectrum:

Social stories for children on the Autism Spectrum Simple narrative with visuals work as self-regulation for the child. Pick a story for one child, or one routine event that the child needs help with Be positive: tell about a happy successful completed event Where, when, who, what, how, why to participate in the routine event Write in the 1 st or 3 rd person Describe the event as it unfolds Describe thoughts, feelings and actions of other in the scene Identify how others offer to cooperate with the child Identify responses the child can use to regulate him/herself The child helps to create the social story, the plan to use it and monitors its use and effectiveness. Together Time



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