Project Management SIG.Fischer

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Project Management :

Project Management Dwight Fischer, CIO Plymouth State University Plymouth, New Hampshire


Agenda Elements of Successful (and Unsuccessful) Projects in Higher Education Tools of the Trade Project Charter Work Breakdown Structure Project Schedule Project Budget Managing the Project Project Manager’s Role Managing Change Navigating the Politics of Change Resources for the Project Manager


Presenter CIO at Plymouth State University Led major projects on three campuses of the University System of New Hampshire Instructor for University of Phoenix online course in Project Management Masters Degrees in Counseling and Executive MBA

Why Project Management?:

Why Project Management? Today’s complex environments require ongoing implementations Project management is a method and mindset…a disciplined approach to managing chaos Project management provides a framework for working amidst persistent change

Themes Requested :

Themes Requested Alignment of projects to organizational mission, goals and objectives Resource conflicts; being spread too thin Organization: traditional vs a matrix, and how to get things done when you are not in control PM role; Supervisor of many, but manager of none. Managing smaller projects and keeping track of them Being organized when organization is not your greatest strength

Themes Requested:

Themes Requested Establishment of PM Office? Projects that initiate new work & responsibilities Developing effective work teams with individuals who dislike one another Getting realistic timeframes attached to project initiatives Controlling changes to development

Themes Requested:

Themes Requested How do we apply PM in higher education, a culture not known for application of business-like methods Improved change management practices Getting vendors to follow up on their end of the deal Ideas around moving an operation to a new facility

Themes Requested:

Themes Requested Project management as applied to an academic library setting

Project Management: Official Definition:

Project Management: Official Definition A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. It implies a specific timeframe a budget unique specifications working across organizational boundaries

Project Management: Unofficial Definition:

Project Management: Unofficial Definition Project management is about organization Project management is about changing people’s behavior Project management is about decision making Project management is about creating an environment conducive to getting critical projects done!

Why Projects Fail:

Why Projects Fail Failure to align project with organizational objectives Poor scope Unrealistic expectations Lack of executive sponsorship Lack of project management Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts Politics

Why Projects Succeed!:

Why Projects Succeed! Project Sponsorship at executive level Good project charter Strong project management The right mix of team players Good decision making structure Good communication Team members are working toward common goals

Why this matters to YOU:

Why this matters to YOU Most of us get to where we are by some technical or specific set of skills If you want to get things done, you need a good blend of Business knowledge People management Knowledge of organizational politics AND an area of technical expertise Those are the people that make things happen!

Laws of Project Management:

Laws of Project Management No major project is ever installed on time, within budget, or with the same staff that started it. Yours will not be the first. Projects progress quickly until they become 90% complete, then they remain at 90% complete forever. When things are going well, something will go wrong. When things just cannot get any worse, they will. Project Planning and Implementation. by Abraham Shtub, Jonathan F. Bard, and Shlomo Globerson Copyright © 1994 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Laws of Project Management:

Laws of Project Management When things appear to be going better, you have overlooked something. No system is ever completely debugged. Attempts to debug a system inevitably introduce new bugs that are even harder to find. A carelessly planned project will take three times longer to complete than expected A carefully planned project will take only twice as long. Project teams detest progress reporting because it vividly manifests their lack of progress. Project Planning and Implementation. by Abraham Shtub, Jonathan F. Bard, and Shlomo Globerson Copyright © 1994 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Core Project Management Tools:

Core Project Management Tools Project Charter Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Project Schedule Project Budget

Project Charter:

Project Charter What must be done? What are the required resources? What are the constraints? What are the short and long term implications? Why do it? When must it be done? Where must it be done? Who does what? Who is behind the project? Who is funding the project? Who is performing the work of the project?

Project Charter:

Project Charter Who What Where Why When Handout

Project Charter:

Project Charter Project Goal & Objective Sponsor Stakeholders Timeline Resources required Deliverables Decision making Assumptions Risks Business process changes Project manager Project team Budget Signatures Handout


Assumptions Opportunity to put it all out there Challenges facing the project Implications Organizational history Political implications Impact to traditional power Requirements of decision-making Write down what cannot be said Keep it objective

Case Study:

Case Study Mojo College Handout

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure Identify the major task categories Identify sub -tasks, and sub - sub -tasks Use verb-noun to imply action to something Example: Getting up in the morning Hit snooze button Hit snooze button again Get outa bed Avoid dog Go to bathroom…

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure Handout

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure Handout

Work Breakdown Structure:

Work Breakdown Structure Requires structured brainstorming

Project Schedule Tools:

Project Schedule Tools Many tools available Microsoft Project Many more specialized software Excel Most important Monitor tasks Gantt views of project one page views for executives rollout and more complex views for work teams Critical Paths Inputs from multiple teams that roll up to project manager Dependencies Resources assigned to tasks

Project Schedule:

Project Schedule Handout

Project Schedule:

Project Schedule Handout

Critical Paths:

Critical Paths Milestones that impact downstream milestones and the overall timeline of project If you miss a Critical Path, the entire project is delayed, or You have to make up ground on downstream critical paths

Project Budget:

Project Budget Direct Costs Indirect Costs Ongoing costs

Project Budget:

Project Budget Direct Costs Hardware Software Contractor fees Estimated hours Hourly Rates per contractor Various contractor rates Training Fanfare Other TOTALS Indirect Costs Your people’s time and effort Estimated time on project Estimated cost based on hourly rate Other’s time and effort Opportunity cost What projects or tasks are NOT going to get done in order to get this project done? Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

Managing the Project:

Managing the Project Triple Constraint Five Stages Project Manager Role Decision Making Structure Communication Plan Meeting Management Team Development Navigating Organizational Politics

Triple Constraint:

Triple Constraint Time Resources Scope/quality Risk?

Five Stages of Project Management:

Five Stages of Project Management Project Management (in our industry) is divided into five parts: Project charter development RFP Development and Process Planning & Design Project team creation Project kick-off Planning (WBS, schedule) Budget Implementation/construction Project termination, hand-off to operations mgt.

Controlling Change Procedures:

Controlling Change Procedures Your Needs Assessment is your baseline document Establish process early for managing change orders Original scoping should be thorough as possible Any subsequent changes must be thoroughly vetted, a form should be completed and members and executives must sign off

Slide 40:

Managing Change

Project Manager’s Role:

Project Manager’s Role Lead Define Plan Monitor Complete Re-Plan Communicate Communicate

Project Manager’s Role:

Project Manager’s Role Leadership Organization Communication Finance Technical savvy Politicking Team building Praising Punishing

Traditional Organization:

Traditional Organization

Matrix Organization:

Matrix Organization

People Problems:

People Problems 2/3 of project problems are people related You will find many operational leaders demonstrate a “just do-it” mentality. While that may be effective in some environments, this is NOT effective in managing change. There will always be conflict over goals and scope, resources and between departments You are likely to find a lack of understanding basic project management methods Some people will never get along

So you want to be a Project Manager:

So you want to be a Project Manager You used to be good friends with your co-workers Project manager sandwich: pressure between co-workers and stakeholders The skills that brought you to this role are no longer as vital; now you need new skills You used to be really good at your work From ESI International:Top Ten Reminders for New Project Managers

Project Manager’s Key Strength:

Project Manager’s Key Strength Be the eye of the hurricane

Slide 48:

Strategies for Managing Change

Team Development:

Team Development Select the right players Complementary skillsets Blend of technical and business Align with WBS Stages of Team Development Formin’ Stormin’ Normin’ Performin’

Formin’ Stormin…in theory:

Formin’ Stormin…in theory Formin’ Stormin’ Normin’ PERFORMIN!’

Formin’ Stormin…in reality:

Formin’ Stormin…in reality Formin’ Stormin!’ Normin’ Performin’

Formin’ Stormin…in reality:

Formin’ Stormin…in reality Formin’ Stormin!’ Normin’ Performin’


Consultants Objective, skilled consultants can provide a team foundation Consultants can address dicey organizational issues For large projects, this approach is vital.

Meeting Management:

Meeting Management Develop Ground Rules early Assign facilitator Assign reporter and reporting structure Start and end times, frequency of meetings Frequency of meetings Focus of meetings Information sharing? Agenda building Issues for substantive discussion

Suggested Ground Rules for Meetings:

Suggested Ground Rules for Meetings Start/end times are real Agree to debate issues, not people Civility required Confidentiality? Reporting out What is going to be reported What isn’t Agree to bring all issues to the table

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Tank : a person who dominates a discussion or issue by brute force of personality. When they present, they speak as an authority. When dealing with a project and defining new solutions, these types of people can be destructive to the process of open discussion and consideration of alternatives. Solution : thank them for their opinion, then ask if there are some other perspectives from other team members.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Grenade: The conversation will be going along fine and all of the sudden, a team member lobs out a discussion-ending comment. Solution : Address the comment head on and suggest that the grenade thrower refrain from comments that will upend conversation of alternatives.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Think-they-know-it-all : Much like the tank. Solution: Same as Grenade.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Maybe Person : This is the person who cannot commit to any position or issue. They take refuge in ambiguity. Solution : On a project team, you need to help them commit. Give them simple alternatives and ask them to decide.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The No Person : This is your general naysayer. Nothing will work, no matter what. Solution : Help to see that no is not an option. Define the alternatives.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Sniper : This is a destructive force in a team. The Sniper tenders up negative comments within the team that negate or attack ideas. Solution : address the behavior immediately and let them know that comments like that are unacceptable based on team norms.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Yes Person : While less negative, this person is so agreeable that they negate their influence through a lack of objective analysis. They are more eager to please than they are to offer objective alternatives. Solution : Point out that you appreciate their positive outlook, but they need to explore options more thoroughly if they want to gain credibility with the group.

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The Traitor : Team member speaks very little in meetings, or sometimes disagrees, and spends times out of meetings lobbying for alternative positions or arguing decisions made by the team Solution : Establish team rules early that state that issues are dealt with in team meetings and this behavior is not acceptable. When it is uncovered, PM addresses it in the meeting or, if necessary, in private

Destructive Team Member Profiles:

Destructive Team Member Profiles The End Arounder : Team member who goes around team and PM to another supervisor or administrator and complains, lobbies or takes alternative positions to team. Solution : Identify the behavior in team development and make it known it is not acceptable. Get all administrators and supervisors to suppress the behavior if it occurs. PM should call it when it’s seen and the Project Sponsor should nip it in bud.

Providing Feedback to Team Members:

Providing Feedback to Team Members Praise in public Punish in private

Case Study:

Case Study

Decision Making Structure:

Decision Making Structure Define Layers Executive Project Manager Project Team Sub Teams Documentation Levels of responsibility should be spelled out for each group. Examples Execs will make all decisions on scope, schedule, personnel changes and budget Project Mgt. team will make all decisions on team assignments, work allocations and management of vendors. Training team will make decisions about training requirements and schedules of sessions.

Decision Making:

Decision Making Avoid consensus abuse Consensus may be desired, but is not required Lack of consensus does not mean no decision Projects force decisions by leaders Clarify who makes what decisions Establish structure for rapid decision making Communicate decisions Log/track decisions for future reference While everyone may not agree with all decisions, it’s important that team members agree to support the decisions Get buy-in from sponsor and administrators preventing ‘end arounds.’

Communication Plan:

Communication Plan Define stakeholders Develop communication plan Identify talents for communication means of communication frequency of communication

Navigating the Politics of Change:

Navigating the Politics of Change Know the environment What are the overarching issues of your organization? What are the pressing issues of the hour? What will be the pressing issues of tomorrow? How do you help others satisfy their needs? What is the stake of others in your project? Identify a mentor

Project Management is Change:

Project Management is Change Project methodology is really about managing change Change in current practices Developing new practices Getting people to change their behaviors How they do their work How they work together How they get the work of the project done Avoidance of paving the cowpaths PM is a mindset, a discipline, that can help your organization increase effectiveness and put order to chaos

Limitations of Project Management:

Limitations of Project Management PM works when there is buy-in for the methods and process It does not work when buy-in is lacking or there is not support for the methods by executives ‘end arounds’ are tolerated influential players operate project business outside the project decisions made by project teams are not supported charters, schedules and other work products of the team are not supported

Project Portfolio Management:

Project Portfolio Management More common in disciplined IT organizations Manages projects that are Proposed Approved In progress Requires organizational buy-in

Additional Project Resources:

Additional Project Resources ESI Horizons Project Management Institute. On Becoming a Technical Leader . by Gerald Weinberg On Becoming a Leader . by Warren Bennis Getting Past No . by William Ury Decision Traps . by Edward Russo

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