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Slide 1: 

The double bass, also called the string bass, upright bass, bass violin or contrabass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2 (see standard tuning). The double bass is a standard member of the string section of the symphony orchestra[1] and smaller string ensembles[2] in Western classical music. In addition, it is used in other genres such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass, tango and many types of folk music. A person who plays the double bass is usually referred to as a bassist.

Slide 2: 

In all types of guitars the sound is produced by the vibration of the strings. However, because the string can only displace a small amount of air, the volume of the sound needs to be increased in order to be heard. In an acoustic guitar, this is accomplished by using a soundboard and a resonant cavity, the sound box. The body of the guitar is hollow. The vibrating strings drive the soundboard through the bridge, making it vibrate. The soundboard has a larger surface area and thus displaces a larger volume of air, producing a much louder sound than the strings alone.

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The harp is a multi-stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicularly to the soundboard. Organologically, it falls in the general category of chordophones (stringed instrtuments) and occupies its own sub category (the harps). All harps have a neck, resonator, and strings. Some, known as frame harps, also have a pillar; those lacking the pillar are referred to as open harps. Depending on its size (which varies considerably), a harp may be played while held in the lap or while it stands on a table, or on the floor. Harp strings may be made of nylon, gut, wire, or silk. On smaller harps (folk harps, for example) the core string material will generally be the same for all strings on a given harp.

Slide 4: 

The viola is similar in material and construction to the violin but is larger in size and more variable in its proportions. A "full-size" viola's body is between one and four inches longer than the body of a full-size violin (i.e., between 15 and 18 inches (38 and 46 cm)), with an average length of about 16 inches (41 cm). Small violas made for children typically start at 12 inches (30 cm), which is equivalent to a half-size violin. Often, a fractional-sized violin will be strung with the strings of a viola (C, G, D and A) for those children who need even smaller sizes.[2] Unlike the violin, the viola does not have a standard full size. The body of a viola would need to measure about 21 inches (53 cm) long to match the acoustics of a violin, making it impractical to play in the same manner as the violin.[3] For centuries, viola makers have experimented with the size and shape of the viola, often tweaking the proportions or shape of the instrument to make an instrument with a shorter string length and lighter weight, but that still has a large enough sound box to create an unmistakable "viola sound."

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The ukulele, (pronounced /ˌjuːkəˈleɪliː/ EW-kə-LAY-lee,[1] from Hawaiian: ʻukulele [ˈʔukuˈlɛlɛ]; variantly spelled ukelele in the UK), sometimes abbreviated to uke, is a chordophone classified as a plucked lute; it is a subset of the guitar family of instruments, generally with four nylon or gut strings or four courses of strings.[2] The ukulele originated in the 19th century as a Hawaiian interpretation of the cavaquinho or braguinha and the rajão, small guitar-like instruments taken to Hawaiʻi by Portuguese immigrants.[3] It gained great popularity elsewhere in the United States during the early 20th century, and from there spread internationally. Tone and volume of the instrument vary with size and construction. Ukuleles commonly come in four sizes: soprano, concert, tenor, and baritone.

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The cello (pronounced /ˈtʃɛloʊ/ CHEL-oh; plural cellos or celli) is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola and the contrabass. The word derives from the Italian 'violoncello'. The word derives ultimately from vitula, meaning a stringed instrument. A person who plays a cello is called a cellist. The cello is used as a solo instrument, in chamber music, in a string orchestra and as a member of the string section of an orchestra. It is the second largest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, the double bass being the largest. Cellos were derived from other mid-to-large sized bowed instruments in the 16th century, such as the viola da gamba, and the generally smaller and squarer viola da braccio, and such instruments were made by members of the Amati family of luthiers. The invention of wire-wrapped strings in Bologna gave the cello greater versatility. By the 18th century the cello had largely replaced other mid-sized bowed instruments.

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