Reading and Problem Solving


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Reading and Problem Solving : 

Reading and Problem Solving Kathy Gibbs SASS Director Rebecca Saulters Educational Specialist Douglas Scarboro Educational Specialist

The Goals of Reading : 

The Goals of Reading You have a mind. Now let us suppose that you also have a book that you want to read. The book consists of language written by someone for the sake of communicating something to you. Your success in reading is determined by the extent to which you receive everything the writer intend to communicate.

The Goals of Reading : 

The Goals of Reading Reading is Thinking!

Metacognition : 

Metacognition Definition The process of identifying and monitoring one’s thinking process

Metacognition : 

Metacognition The Questions What do I know? What don’t I know? What do I need to know? How do I go about learning?

Metacognition : 

Metacognition The Implications Efficient thinkers monitor what they are thinking Recognize erroneous or deficient thinking Implement strategies needed to remediate their deficiencies

Metacognition : 

Metacognition The Strategies Setting a purpose for the task Examining existing facts Identifying what needs to be learned Visualizing Relating to existing cognitive background knowledge Thinking aloud Engaging in the process actively

Harvard Study on Reading : 

Harvard Study on Reading Dr. Perry, Director of the Harvard Reading-Study Center 1,550 freshmen read a thirty-page chapter from a history book Asked to identify important details and write a topical essay on the chapter’s after twenty minutes

Harvard Study on Reading : 

Harvard Study on Reading Class scored well on multiple choice Only 15 out of 1500 were able to write a short statement summarizing the chapter’s contents Described as “Obedient Purposelessness” Think about what you want out of the assignment and look for those points

Factors that reduce reading rate : 

Factors that reduce reading rate Limited perceptual span (word for word reading) Slow perceptual reaction time Vocalization Faulty eye movements Regression Faulty habits of attention and concentration

Factors that reduce reading rate : 

Factors that reduce reading rate Lack of practice in reading Fear of losing comprehension Habitual slow reading Poor evaluation of importance The effort to remember everything

Washing Clothes : 

Washing Clothes First you arrange things into different groups, depending on their color and texture. If there is not much to do, one pile may be sufficient. If you lack the necessary equipment, you must go somewhere else. It is important not to overload. It is better to do too few things than too many. Complications can arise if all directions are not followed, and a mistake can be expensive. At first, the whole procedure may seem difficult, but soon it will become just another fact of life. You can get caught up, never ahead, on this tasks.

Flying a Kite : 

Flying a Kite A seashore is a better place than the street. At the start, it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill, but it is easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complication are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Too many people, doing the same thing can cause problems, as one needs lots of room. If there are no strong condition of mishaps, it can be very peaceful. A rock can serve as an anchor, but if things break loose from it, you will not get a second chance.

Rocky the Wrestler : 

Rocky the Wrestler Rocky slowly got up from the mat, planning his escape. He hesitated a moment and thought. Things were not going well. What bothered him mist was being held, especially since the change against him had been weak. He considered his present situation. The lock that held him was strong, but the thought he could break it. His timing would have to be perfect. Rocky was aware that it was because of his early roughness that he had been penalized so severely – much too severely from his point of view. The situation was frustrating – the pressure had been grinding on him for too long. He was being ridden unmercifully. Rocky felt himself getting angry now. He was ready to make his move. Success or failure would depend on what he did in the next few seconds.

Comprehension Checklist : 

Comprehension Checklist Prior to reading During Reading Post Reading

Comprehension Checklist: Prior : 

Comprehension Checklist: Prior Do I have a clear idea of the topic of this selection? Have I mentally summarized what I already know about the topic? Have I written down questions I hope to answer by reading this selection?

Comprehension Checklist: During : 

Comprehension Checklist: During Have I clarified all unknown vocabulary words through contextual clues or etymological analysis? Have I paced my reading such that I am getting the overall picture as well as the details? Have I started or underlined pertinent facts and ignored non-relevant information? Am I consciously monitoring whether or not I understand what is being said?

Comprehension Checklist: After : 

Comprehension Checklist: After Can I summarize the key points of the article in short concise statements? Can I summarize the author’s conclusion or feelings about the topic? Can I identify further topics for inquiry as a result of this reading? How does what I just read fit in with other readings, opinions and ideas on this topic?

Reading rates : 

Reading rates Reading rate is the speed at which you read, which is measured in words per minute. Your reading rate will change based on the difficulty of the material content.

Reading rate : 

Reading rate

Reading Rate : 

Reading Rate Factors that affect your reading rate Vocabulary level Comprehension ability Physical state State of mind Interest in the material Background knowledge Purpose of reading

Reading Rates : 

Reading Rates Approximate reading rate for Average High School Student English, History, Government 15-18 pages per hour Biology, Math, Economics 12-15 pages per hour Chemistry, Physics, Languages 9-12 pages per hour

Reading Rates : 

Reading Rates Approximate reading rates for Average College Student History English, Political Science 20-25 pages per hour Psychology, Biology, Economics, Geography, Sociology 15-20 pages per hour Chemistry, Physics, Anatomy, Microbiology 10-15 pages per hour Bio-Chemistry, Physics 8-10 pages per hour

Increasing your reading rate : 

Increasing your reading rate First Priority is READING COMPREHENSION Achieve comprehension then set artificial time limits for your reading Continue until you achieve your desired rate Use an external pacer if needed

Factors that reduce your reading rate : 

Factors that reduce your reading rate Limited perceptual span Slow perceptual reaction time Vocalization Faulty eye movement Regression Faulty habits of attention and concentration

Factors that reduce your reading rate : 

Factors that reduce your reading rate Lack of practice in reading Fear of losing comprehension Habitual slow reading Poor evaluation of importance The effort to remember everything

Context clues : 

Context clues Definition clues Ex. Political science is the study of government of a state or nation. Illustration clues Ex. Several lethal weapons were found in the suitcase: a revolver, a pistol, and a knife. Contrast clues Ex. Ralph’s family was affluent, but his roommate’s family lived barely above the poverty level. Logic clues Ex. The young woman was relieved to learn that the tumor was benign.

Improving reading efficiency : 

Improving reading efficiency Reduce regression Increase your eye span Phrase read Keep your head still when you read Don’t move your lips when you read Don’t use a pencil, ruler or paper guide Position you book at 45 degree angle Use context clues to get word meanings Don’t engage in conflicting activities

Phrase Reading : 

Phrase Reading The electronic computer / is the / latest tool / developed by man / to aid / him / in processing data. / For business / or government / agencies /dealing with / great numbers / of records, / none of the previously mentioned / data processing methods / is fast enough.

Previewing : 

Previewing Check course syllabus for lecture topic related to text reading assignment Look at title of chapter Read introduction Read all subheadings Read the first and last sentences of each paragraphs Look at graphs, diagrams and pictures Read chapter summary Read questions stems

Pre-Reading strategies : 

Pre-Reading strategies Set a purpose for reading Review all questions at the end Review all maps, graphs, and charts Acquaint yourself with all new or technical vocabulary Be sure your surroundings are conducive to reading

Focusing : 

Focusing When your thoughts drift become more active by: Read one paragraph at a time and write pertinent information in the margin Main idea Inferences Agree or disagree with text Why author wrote the paragraph

Focusing: Marginal Notes : 

Focusing: Marginal Notes T = test question ? = ask instructor about Ex of = example of Def of = definition 1,2,3 = items in a series RR = reread II = parallel or similar to

Reading in a time crunch : 

Reading in a time crunch Read any questions at end of material Read summaries at beginning and end of material Read first and last paragraphs of the selection Read the first sentence of each paragraph Read the bold print, italics and underlined passages Preview any maps, charts or graphs

Applicable websites : 

Applicable websites study.html

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