Multilevel Architecture

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Multilevel Viewpoint of a Machine & Structured Organization:

Multilevel Viewpoint of a Machine & Structured Organization

Multilevel Computer:

Multilevel Computer Problem oriented language level Assembly Language Operating System Instruction Set Architecture Micro-architecture level Digital Logic Level Level 5 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0 Level 4

Slide 3:

Microarchitecture also known as Computer organization at a lower level. is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA) is implemented on a processor. A given ISA may be implemented with different microarchitectures. Implementations might vary due to different goals of a given design or due to shifts in technology. Computer architecture is the combination of microarchitecture and instruction set design. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is the abstract image of a computing system that is seen by a machine language (or assembly language ) programmer. ISA includes the instruction set , word size , memory address modes , processor registers , and address and data formats.

Computer Level Hierarchy :

Computer Level Hierarchy Level 6 User Executable Program Level 5 High Level Lang. C++, Java etc. Level 4 Assembly Lang. Assembly Code Level 3 System Software Operating System, Library Code Level 2 Machine Level Instruction Set Architecture Level 1 Control Unit Microprogrammed or Hardwired Level 0 Digital Logic Circuits, gates etc.

Functions of Operating System:

Functions of Operating System Process Management Memory Management File Management Device Management Types of Control Unit Micro Program is a program written in a low level lang. that is implemented by the hardware. This result in CISC architecture. Hardwired CU consist of hardware that directly executes machine instructions. This design result in RISC architecture.

Structured Organization of a computer System:

Structured Organization of a computer System System Bus CPU Main Memory Disk Controller Video Subsytem Interfaces Audio Hard Disks VDU Serial (COM) Parallel (LPT) Port

The Functions performed by a computing System:

The Functions performed by a computing System Data Processing Functions : carried out by CPU Data Movement Functions : Registers & Memory Control Functions : carried out by CU Data Storage Functions : Memory Units System Bus Structure : Communication pathway connecting two or more devices like CPU, Main Memory or I/O. Bus is a group of physical wires. Address Bus (Unidirectional) Data Bus (Bidirectional) Control Bus (Unidirectional)