PRESENTATION ON ,GEOGRAPHY, CHAPTER-5: PRESENTATION ON ,GEOGRAPHY, CHAPTER-5 NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE : MADE BY- IX-C , 33 Natural vegetation: Natural vegetation Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid & has been left undistributed by humans for a long time. This is termed as a virgin vegetation. Thus , cultivated crops and fruits, orchards form part of vegetation but not natural vegetation . Some Facts: Some Facts India is one of the 12 megadiversity countries of the world. Four Biodiversity Hotspots are present in India 16 major forest groups are present in India. India is also very rich in agro diversity. ECOSYSTEM: ECOSYSTEM All the plants & animals in an area are interdependent & interrelated to each other in their physical environment, thus, forming an ecosystem. Human beings are also integral part o the ecosystem . The human beings utilize the vegetation and wildlife . A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation & animal life is called a biome. The biomes are identified on the basis of plants. TYPES OF VEGETATION: TYPES OF VEGETATION The following major types of vegetation may be identified in our country- TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS TROPICAL THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS MONTANE FORESTS MANGROVE FORESTS TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS: TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS OCCUR IN REGIONS OF VERY HEAVY RAINFALL [ MORE THAN 200CM PER YEAR ] . THESE FORESTS ARE VERY DENSE. THEY HAVE MAINLY EVERGREEN TREES, WHICH DO NOT SHED THEIR LAVES ACROSS SEASONS . HENCE THEY REMAIN GREEN THROUGHOUT THE YEAR . THE WESTERN GHATS AND THE WESTERN COAST , PARTS OF WEST BENGAL AND ORRISA , THE NORTH-EASTERN STATES AND THEANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANSHANE SUCH VEGETATIONS. MAHOGANY , CINCHONA AND WILD RUBBER ARE SOME OF THE COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT HARDWOOD TREES THAT GROW IN THESE AREAS . BAMBOO ALSO GROW HERE. Tropical deciduous forests: Tropical deciduous forests Tropical Deciduous Forest is also known as monsoon forest. It is the most common type of forest in India. It occurs over a large part of the country where the annual rainfall varies between 100cm and 200cm. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in the beginning of summer. Forests of teak, sal , palash , peepal , rosewood, sandalwood, ebony and shisham occur in the wetter parts of the Deccan plateau and the northern plains, right upto the foothills of the Himalyas . Bamboo, too, grows in these regions TYPES OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS: TYPES OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS Dry deciduous forests Moist deciduous forests THE THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS: THE THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS Thorn forest, dense, scrub like vegetation characteristic of dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with a seasonal rainfall averaging 250 to 500 millimetres This vegetation covers a large part of southwestern North America and southwestern Africa and smaller areas in Africa, South America, and Australia. In South America, thorn forest is sometimes called caatinga . Thorn forest grades into savanna woodland as the rainfall increases and into desert as the climate becomes drier. WILDLIFE IN THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS: WILDLIFE IN THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS THE MOST COMMON PLANT OF THORN FORESTS- CACTUS MANGROVE FORESTS: MANGROVE FORESTS MANGROVE FORESTS ARE found in swampy areas that are constantly washed by seawater during high tides. Such vegetation is found almost all along the eastern coast, especially in the large deltas formed by river life the Ganga, Mahanadi , Godavari , Krishna and kaveri. The most extensive MANGROVE forest is in the Ganga –Brahmaputra delta . it is called the sundarbans after the sundari, the tree that grow more abundantly in this region . The wood of this tree Is durable and is used to make boats. Mangroves are also found in the Andaman and Nicobar islands . MONTANE FORESTS: MONTANE FORESTS The vegetation in the mountains varies with altitude. In the Himalayas, it ranges from tropical deciduous to coniferous. Coniferous trees such as cedars, pines, and silver fir are generally found at heights between 1500m to 2500m. Coniferous trees are often conical in shape. Also , most of them bear cones and have needle-shaped leaves. At heights of about 3,000m and above, trees give way to what is known as alpine vegetation of shrubs and grasses. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS: IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS FORESTS ARE RENEWABLE RESOURSES. THEY PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF ENVIRONMENT. IT CONTROL SOIL EROSION, REGULATE STREAM FLOW, SUPPORTS A VARIETY OF INDUSTRIES,PROVIDE LIVELIHOODFOR MANY COMMUNITIES . IT CONTROL WIND FORCEAND TEMPERATURE AND CAUSES RAINFALL. FOREST COVER FOR DIFFERENT FIELDS IN INDIA: FOREST COVER FOR DIFFERENT FIELDS IN INDIA Protecting forests: Protecting forests Forests are the natural wealth of a country, and need to be protected. At one time forests in india covered a large area. But cutting down trees for wood and clearing the forests for culivation have reduced this cover. The loss of forests is called deforestation. India needs not only maintain its existing forest cover but also to increase it. This can be done by planting a large number of trees. WILDLIFE: WILDLIFE India is also rich in its fauna. It has more than 89,000 of animal species . The country has more than 1200 species of birds. The constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2500 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 & 8 percent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles & mammals. SOME WILD ANIMALS OF INDIA: SOME WILD ANIMALS OF INDIA SOME BIRDS FOUND INAA INDIA: SOME BIRDS FOUND INAA INDIA CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION All of must realise the importance of the natural ecosystem for our own survival. It is possible if indiscriminate destruction of natural environment is put to an immediate end. WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS DONE?: WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS DONE? 14 biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna. Financial and technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens since 1992. Project Tiger , Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many others Eco-developmental Projects have been introduced. 89 National Parks, 490 Wildlife Sanctuaries have been set up to take care of Natural Heritage MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDIA: MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDIA INDIA HAS SOME 2,000 SPECIES OF PLANTS DESCRIBED IN AYURVEDA. ABOUT 500 OF THE PLANTS ARE IN REGULAR USE. THE COMMONLY USED PLANTS ARE: SARPAGANDHA JAMUN ARJUN BABOOL NEEM TULSI PLANT KACHNAR DO YOU KNOW!: DO YOU KNOW! WHAT IS FLORA AND FAUNA? WHAT ARE EXOTIC PLANTS? WHAT WAS ACTUAL FOREST COVER IN INDIA IN 2001? WHAT IS A BIOME? WHEN WAS WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT IMPLEMENTED IN INDIA? WHAT IS GIR FOREST FAMOUS FOR? WHICH FACT OF INDIA IS FAMOUS IN WORLD? ARE YOU CORRECT?: ARE YOU CORRECT? FLORA IS TERM USED FOR PLANTS.FAUNA IS TERM USED FOR ANIMAL. THE SPECIES WHICH HAVE COME FROM OUTSIDE INDIA ARE CALLED EXOTIC PLANTS. 20.55 PER CENT. A VERY LARGE ECOSYSTEM ON LAND IS CALLED A BIOME. 1972 GIR FOREST IS LAST REMAINING HABITAT OF ASIATIC LION. INDIA IS THE ONLY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD THAT HAS BOTH TIGERS AND LIONS.