saliva.gland diseases.

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Salivary gland diseases Prepared by Dr.Faiq M. Amen lecturer B.D.S MSc Oral medicine University of sulaimani College of dentistry sulaimani iraq Email –dfaiq@yahoo.com

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The main function of salivary gland is production of saliva. Saliva is a highly complex mixture of: Water and organic and non-organic components (enzymes like amylase and electrolytes like Na, Ca, Cl, Mg). Major Functions of Saliva: Hydration Cleansing Lubrication Digestion Remineralization of dentition Maintenance of mucosal integrity Antimicrobial

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Patients with salivary gland disease most frequently present with complaints of: Oral dryness Swelling Mass in a gland There are three paired major salivary glands: Parotid 25% Submandibular 70% Sublingual 5% There are also hundreds of minor salivary glands through out the mouth most of which are named for their anatomic location . (labial, palatal, buccal )

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Diagnosis of salivary gland disease: 1-Evaluation of Dry Mouth: A-Symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction: Dryness. Pain. The mucosa may be sensitive to spicy or coarse foods. B-Past and present medical history: Patient who has received radiotherapy an individual who has recently started taking a tricyclic antidepressant. Patients should also be questioned concerning dryness at other body sites.

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C-Clinical examination: Mucosal dryness. Difficulty chewing, swallowing, and speaking. The tongue may be smooth and reddened, with loss of papillation . Candidiasis. Enlargement of the salivary glands. There is often a marked increase in erosion and caries. Saliva should be clear, watery, and copious . A cloudy exudate may be a sign of bacterial infection.

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D-Saliva collection: Whole saliva is the mixed fluid contents of the mouth. The main methods of whole saliva collection include the: Draining, Spitting, Suction, and Absorbent (swab) methods. Un stimulated whole saliva flow rates of < 0.1 mL/min, and stimulated whole saliva flow rate’s of < 1.0 mL/min , are considered abnormally low and indicative of marked salivary hypo function. E-Salivary gland imaging: 1-Plain-Film Radiography. 2-Sialography. 3-Ultrasonography. 4-Radionuclide Salivary Imaging. 5-Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. CT Evaluation of dry mouth

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patient with acute sialadenitis (Isotop) parotid gland for a normal patient CT image demonstrating a tumor of the right parotid

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2-Evaluation of a Salivary Mass or Enlarged Salivary Gland: A-Presentations: Salivary gland tumors most commonly present as an asymptomatic mass. Pain is not a reliable indicator of malignancy, but when pain occurs, it is often the result of neural involvement and carries a worse prognosis. If nasal obstruction is also present, the clinician should suspect a tumor in the nasal or Para nasal sinuses, possibly arising from a minor salivary gland. B-Physical examination of the salivary glands: The major salivary glands are palpated, and the orifices of the ducts are observed for saliva output. C-Imaging: Plain-film radiography of the mandible or maxilla may be performed as a rapid and inexpensive way to determine if salivary tumors involve adjacent bony structures.

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Evaluation of a Salivary Mass or Enlarged Salivary Gland D-Open surgical biopsy: A preoperative surgical biopsy is rarely indicated for salivary masses. In almost all salivary gland tumors, the treatment of choice is an excisional biopsy. E-Fine needle aspiration biopsy: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is a simple and effective technique that aids the diagnosis of solid lesions. It may be particularly useful for elderly patients who can not tolerate an excisional biopsy because of medical considerations.

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Specific diseases and disorders: 1-Developmental Abnormalities: The absence of salivary glands is rare although it may occur together with other developmental defects. 2-Accessory Salivary Ducts: Accessory ducts are common and do not require treatment. Half of the patients had accessory parotid ducts. 3-Diverticuli: Is a pouch or sac protruding from the wall of a duct. Diverticuli in the ducts of the major salivary glands often lead to pooling of saliva and recurrent sialadenitis. 4-Darier’s Disease: Salivary duct abnormalities have been reported in Darier’s disease. Sialography of parotid glands in this condition revealed duct dilation, with periodic stricture affecting the main ducts. Symptoms of occasional obstructive sialadenitis have been reported.

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5-Sialolithiasis (Salivary Stones): Sialoliths are calcified and organic matter that forms within the secretory system of the major salivary glands. The etiology of sialolith formation is still unknown; however, there are several factors that contribute to stone formation like: Inflammation, irregularities in the duct system, local irritants, and anticholinergic medications may cause pooling of saliva within the duct, which is thought to pro-mote stone formation. It is believed that a nidus of salivary organic material becomes calcified and gradually forms a sialolith.

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6-Mucoceles: Is a clinical term that describes swelling caused by the accumulation of saliva at the site of a traumatized or obstructed minor salivary gland duct. Mucoceles are classified as: extravasation types (result of trauma to a minor salivary gland excretory duct) and retention types (caused by obstruction of a minor salivary gland duct ) A large form of mucocele located in the floor of the mouth is known as a ranula .

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7-Inflammatory and Reactive Lesions: a-Necrotising sialometaplasia: Is a benign self-limiting reactive inflammatory disorder of the salivary tissue. Clinically, this lesion mimics a malignancy , Lesions occur predominately on the palate (deep ulceration with a yellowish base). b-Radiation induced pathology: Patients experience xerostomia and decreased salivary gland function. c-Allergic sialadenitis: Enlargement of the salivary glands has been associated with exposure to various pharmaceutical agents and allergens. The characteristic feature of such an allergic reaction is acute salivary gland enlargement, often accompanied by itching over the gland. (phenobarbital, phenothiazine, and heavy metals).

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8-Viral Diseases: Cytomegalo virus infection: HIV infection: Hepatitis C virus infection: Mumps (Epidemic parotitis): Mumps is normally a mild illness, but in a minority of cases, there can be severe complications, such as deafness and meningitis. This is why children are vaccinated against mumps.

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9-Bacterial sialadenitis: Bacterial infections of the salivary glands are most commonly seen in patients with reduced salivary gland function. The reduction of salivary flow results in diminished mechanical flushing, which allows bacteria to colonize the oral cavity and then to invade the salivary duct and cause acute bacterial infection . Although sialoliths occur more frequently in the submandibular glands, bacterial sialadenitis occurs more frequently in the parotid glands. submandibular glands may be protected by the high level of mucin in the saliva, which has potent antimicrobial activity. tongue movements tend to clear the floor of the mouth and protect Wharton’s duct. In contrast, the orifice of Stenson’s duct is located adjacent to the molars, where heavy bacterial colonization occurs.

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10-Systemic Conditions with Salivary Gland Involvement: Infectious disorders : Bacterial, Viral. Metabolic disorders: Sjögren’s syndrome, Thyroid disease, Diabetes Neoplasms: Benign, Malignant. 11-Metabolic Conditions: Diabetes. Chronic alcoholism Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa/Bulimia. (self starvation, eating and purging) 12-Medication-Induced Salivary Dysfunction: There are over 400 medications that are listed as having dry mouth as an adverse event. 13-Granulomatous Conditions: Tuberculosis Sarcoidosis

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14-Immune Conditions: a-Benign lympho epithelial lesion (Miculicz’s disease) : It has been speculated that autoimmune, viral, or genetic factors are the trigger. This condition predominantly affects middle aged women. Patients present with unilateral or bilateral salivary gland swelling due to a benign lymphoid infiltration. b- Sjögren’s syndrome (Primary and secondary): Is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by symptoms of oral and ocular dryness and lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the exocrine glands (thyroid, lung, and kidney) and there is no cure. Patients with secondary SS have salivary and/or lacrimal gland dysfunction in the setting of another connective-tissue disease. Primary SS is a systemic disorder that includes both lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunctions without another autoimmune condition.

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Salivary gland tumours: Benign Tumors: 1-Pleomorphic adenoma 2- Monomorphic adenoma 3- Papillary cyst adenoma lymphomatosum 4- Oncocytoma 5- Basal cell adenomas 6- Canalicular adenoma 7- Myoepithelioma 8- Sebaceous adenoma 9- Ductal papilloma a- Simple Ductal Papilloma. b- Inverted Ductal Papilloma. c- Sialadenoma Papilliferum. Malignant Tumors: 1-Muco epidermoid carcinoma 2- Adenoid cystic carcinoma 3- Acinic cell carcinoma 4- Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma 5- Adenocarcinoma 6- Lymphoma Adenoid cystic carcinoma Monomorphic adenoma

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Carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland Lymphadenoma (Hodgkin's Disease)

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Treatment 1-Treatment of xerostomia: 1-Preventive Therapy: Topical fluorides in a patient with salivary gland hypofunction is absolutely critical to control dental caries. 2-Symptomatic Treatment: Using water. 3-Salivary Stimulation: Local or topical stimulation: Chewing unflavored gum base or an inert material such as paraffin wax will stimulate salivary flow effectively. Systemic stimulation: bromhexine, anetholetrithione, pilocarpine hydrochloride (HCl), and cevimeline HCl. Sialorrhea: “Sialorrhea” refers to excess saliva production. Medications (eg, pilocarpine and cevimeline) can cause increased salivation. Patients with neurologic changes may note an onset of sialorrhea. This commonly occurs after a cerebral vascular accident or in various neuromuscular diseases (eg, Parkinson’s disease).

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2-Surgical Treatment: 1-Parotidectomy: Superficial parotidectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of low grade malignant salivary tumors. For high-grade malignant salivary tumors, a total parotidectomy is performed. Complications after parotidectomy: Permanent, partial or total facial nerve paralysis occurs. A salivary fistula or sialocele is a relatively common complication after parotid gland surgery. Frey’s syndrome is a relatively common complication of parotidectomy. This syndrome presents as gustatory sweating (a condition in which a patient will flush or sweat with salivary stimulation results ).

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2-Submandibular, sublingual, and minor salivary gland surgery: Tumors of the submandibular and sublingual glands are treated by total removal of the gland. The risks associated with the removal of the submandibular gland include: hemorrhage , infection , and injury to the hypoglossal, lingual, or marginal mandibular nerves . The treatment of tumors of the minor salivary glands depends on the location and extent of disease. Complete excision is usually sufficient for benign tumors.

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Thanks Prepared by Dr.Faiq M. Amen lecturer B.D.S MSc Oral medicine University of sulaimani College of dentistry sulaimani iraq Email –dfaiq@yahoo.com

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