What is power

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Slide 1:


What is power?:

What is power? Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others . The potential to influence others People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person


CONCEPT OF POWER The term ‘power’ may be defined as a capacity to exert in influence over others. “Power is define as the ability to influence and control anything that is of value of others”. According to P. Robbins “Power is the probability that one actor within the relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance”. According to Max Weber

Why does having power matter?:

Why does having power matter? With power you can… Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget Get items on and off agendas Get fast access to decision makers Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts

Power and Dependence:

Power and Dependence Person A Person B’s Goals Person B Person B’s counter power over Person A Person A’s power over Person B

Dependency: The Key To Power:

Dependency: The Key To Power The General Dependency Postulate The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful. Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. What Creates Dependency Importance of the resource to the organization Scarcity of the resource Non substitutability of the resource


Authority Authority may defined as the power to make decisions which guide the actions of another. It is a relationship between two individuals; one superior, another subordinate. The superior frame and transmit decisions with expectation that these will be accepted by the subordinate. The subordinate executes such decisions and his conduct is determined by them.

Difference between Authority & Power:

Difference between Authority & Power Authority is legitimized by some certain rules, regulations, laws and practices, in the case of power, there may or may not be such legitimization. Authority is institutional and originates because of structural relationship. Power emerges because of personal factors and varies with the individuals. Cont…..

Difference between Authority & Power:

Difference between Authority & Power Authority exists in the context if organizational relationship. Power relationship exists between any two persons. Authority is the right to command. Power is the capacity to command.


NATURE OF POWER Power can be potential or enacted. Power represents the capacity, ability to influence the behavior of other people to achieve certain goal. Leaders exercise power to accomplish goals of an organization. Power is not completely formal nor informal. It is rather a judicious mixture of two.

Characteristics of Power :

Characteristics of Power Reciprocal Relationships. Dependency Relationships. Power is Specific. Resistance to Change. People Differ in Terms of Values. Unequal Distribution.


SOURCES OF POWER Organizational source of power Individual sources of power Interpersonal sources of power Structural sources of power

Organizational sources of power :

Organizational sources of power Coercive power Reward power Legitimate power Substitutability Centrality Discretion Visibility Dependability

Individual sources of power:

Individual sources of power Expert power Referent power

Interpersonal sources of power:

Interpersonal sources of power Number of people Coercive power base Legitimate power base Reward power base Expert power base Referent power base


STRUCTURAL SOURCES OF POWER Knowledge as power Resources of power Decision making as power

Importance of Power:

Importance of Power Necessary for Coordinated Activities. Upset and insecure It prevents the achievement of the objective. Basis for authority and responsibility. Power is commonly recognized as the basis of authority and responsibility.

Model of Power in Organizations:

Model of Power in Organizations Power over Others Contingencies Of Power Legitimate Reward Coercive Expert Referent Sources Of Power

Contingencies of Power:

Contingencies of Power Contingencies of Power Substitutability Centrality Discretion Visibility Power over others Sources of Power



Slide 22:

22 Legitimate power. Also known as formal hierarchical authority. The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior. If legitimacy is lost, authority will not be accepted by subordinates.

Legitimate Power:

Legitimate Power Influence based on the legitimate right of someone to influence others (often embedded in position, always complex) Resistance = Usually quite low Appropriateness = Yes, by definition State Change = Often involves a state change

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24 Reward power. The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Control of salaries, wages, commissions etc…. Success in accessing and utilizing rewards depends on manager’s skills.

Reward Power:

Reward Power Influence based on the ability to reward (money CAN be a source of power) Resistance = None, usually Appropriateness = Generally OK State Change = No, requires constant attention

Slide 26:

26 Coercive power. The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people. Using force or threat of force Availability varies from one organization and manager to another.

Coercive Power:

Coercive Power Influence based on the ability to punish (might makes right) Resistance = Potentially quite strong Appropriateness = Often not State Change = No, could provoke strong negative response

Slide 28:

28 Information power. The access to and/or control of information. May be granted to specialists and managers in the middle of the information system. People may “protect” information in order to increase their power.



Slide 30:

30 Expert power. The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge , experience, or judgment that the other person needs but does not have. Is relative (compared), not absolute.

Expert Power:

Expert Power Influence based on the ability to convince others to follow your good advice (information is power) Resistance = Generally low Appropriateness = Generally OK State Change = Not really

Slide 32:

32 Referent power. The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Can be enhanced by linking to morality and ethics and long-term vision.

Referent Power:

Referent Power Influence by example, peer pressure power (I want to be like Mike) Resistance = None Appropriateness = Generally OK State Change = Very much so

Slide 34:

34 Charismatic Power. Emerges from individual’s charisma. It is popular in political fields and some great persons like Mahatma Gandhi, M. Luther King etc….

Consequences of Power:

Commitment Consequences of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Resistance Compliance Sources of Power Consequences of Power

Slide 36:

Commitment: This is a result in which the target agrees with a request or decision from the agent and strives carryout the request or implement the decision effectively. Compliance : This is an outcome in which the target is willing to do what the agent asks, but is apathetic rather than enthusiastic about it. Resistance : The target is opposed to carrying out the agent’s requests and decisions.

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Relationship Among Social Influence, Power, and Politics Organizational politics Use of power for personal interests Capacity to exert influence Social influence Unsuccessful Successful Power


Influence Influence is defined as the ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes, or behaviors of others.

Slide 39:

Influence : The success of an influence attempt can be distinguished among qualitatively distinct outcomes: commitment, compliance, and resistance . In general, influence is understood as the effect of one party (the agent) on another (the target).

Difference between power and influence (Keith’s definition):

Difference between power and influence (Keith’s definition) Both involve a capacity to change the behavior of another individual, to get them to do something that they would not otherwise do. However: Power > Behavior > attitudes Influence > Attitudes > behavior POWER requires that the target perceives the user has something they want


DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN POWER, AUTORITY AND INFLUENCE POWER: Is the ability to exercise influence. AUTORITY: is the right to command. INFLUENCE: refers to the ability to change people in general ways, like their performance and satisfaction.

Types of Influence Patterns:

Types of Influence Patterns Compliance. Identification. Internalization.


Compliance Compliance occurs when people are influenced to do something against their will because they have been coerced into doing it.


Identification Identification occurs when people do things that the leader wants them to do because they like him or her and want to put forth the effort to accomplish the things that the leader would like them to do.


Internalization Internalization occurs when followers are convinced that acting in a particular way as directed by the leader, is in their own interests.

Determinants Of Influence:

Determinants Of Influence Resources and Information. Status. Contacts. Authority. Rewards and Punishment. Expertise. Function. Charisma. Power. Politics. Leadership.

Power Tactics:

Power Tactics Influence Tactics : Legitimacy Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal appeals Ingratiation Pressure Coalitions Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions.

Slide 48:

Legitimacy – in accordance with organizational rules or policies Rational persuasion – logical arguments and factual info Inspirational appeals- emotional commitment by appealing to values , hopes , and aspiration Consultation Exchange – rewarding the target with benefits in exchange for following a request Personal appeals – compliance based on friendship and loyalty Ingratiation –flattery ,praise

Slide 49:

Pressure – warning and threats Coalitions – enlisting the aid of other person Rational persuasion , inspirational appeals and consultation are more effective

Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction:

Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction E X H I B I T 13–2 Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions

Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics:

Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics Sequencing of tactics Softer to harder tactics works best. Skillful use of a tactic Experienced users are more successful. Relative power of the tactic user Some tactics work better when applied downward. The type of request attaching to the tactic Is the request legitimate? How the request is perceived Is the request accepted as ethical? The culture of the organization Culture affects user’s choice of tactic Country-specific cultural factors Local values favor certain tactics over others.

Power in Groups: Coalitions:

Power in Groups: Coalitions Seek to maximize their size to attain influence. Seek a broad and diverse constituency for support of their objectives. Occur more frequently in organizations with high task and resource interdependencies. Occur more frequently if tasks are standardized and routine. Coalitions Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to a achieve a specific purpose.



What Is Leadership?:

What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.


VALUES A value may be defined as a concept of a desirable, an internalized criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses. Values are so embedded that they can be inferred from people’s behavior and their perception, personality and motivation. Values shape Beliefs Perceptions Behavior, Interests, Personality Attitudes


Definitions “ Values are specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence ”. Stephen P. Robbins “ Values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a variety of situations ”. Milton Rokeach


TYPES OF VALUES Types of Values Instrumental Values Terminal Values

Slide 58:

Instrumental Values:- It relate to means for achieving desired ends, e.g., ambition, honesty & imagination. It reflect how the person gets there. Thus it is a tool or means of acquiring a terminal values. Terminal Values:- It lead to ends to be achieved. It reflect what person is ultimately striving to achieve.

Slide 59:

Terminal Values (“ends”) Comfortable Life Sense of Accomplishment Family Security Mature Love Self-respect Wisdom Instrumental Values (“means”) Ambition Courage Honesty Helpfulness Independence Imagination

Characteristics of Value:

Characteristics of Value Part of culture. Learned Responses. Social Phenomenon. Adaptive Process. Gratifying Responses.

Classification of Values:

Classification of Values Values Human Values Business Values Community Values Family Values Social Values Professional Values National Values Secular Values Spiritual Values

Importance of Values:

Importance of Values Values lay the foundations for the understanding of attitudes & motivation. Personal Value system influences the perception of individuals. Value system influences the manager’s perception of the different situations. Value system also influences a manager’s decisions and his solutions to the various problems.

Leadership Traits:

Leadership Traits Intelligence – ability to understand and reason through problems Knowledge – of regional problems, their causes, and potential solutions Respect – the extent to which an individual or group can win the community’s estimation or admiration Sorenson and Epps,1996

Leadership Traits:

Leadership Traits Resources – sufficient finances and time to perform a leadership role Energy – ability to expend considerable (necessary) efforts on the leadership tasks Originality – ability to bring new perspectives to bear on local problems Sorenson and Epps, 1996

Leadership Traits:

Leadership Traits Persuasiveness – may result from some combination of position, eloquence, fear, inducement, or ability to simplify arguments for the general consumption Synoptic thinking – ability to see the big picture Sorenson and Epps, 1996

Trait Theories:

Trait Theories Leadership Traits : Ambition and energy The desire to lead Honest and integrity Self-confidence Intelligence High self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledge Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non leaders.

Slide 67:

Big five and leadership traits Dozens of traits that emerged could be part of one of the Big Five. Ambition and energy =extroversion and self confidence= emotional stability. Extroversion –related to leadership emergence rather than leader effectiveness. Due to the presence of a valid framework for classifying and organizing traits now , we can conclude that traits can predict leadership –emergence not effectiveness or ineffectiveness.

Trait Theories:

Trait Theories Limitations : No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

Behavioral Theories:

Behavioral Theories Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders.

Slide 70:

Behavioral theories have had modest in Identifying consistent relationship between leader behaviour and group performance. Situational impact is missing (Gandhi and Hitler) Leaders exhibit values with a compelling vision of the future. Fiedler Model : A key factor in leadership success is the individual’s basic leadership style for which the LPC questionnaire is used

Contingency Theories of Leadership:

Contingency Theories of Leadership The “Interaction” Perspective of Leadership Path-Goal Theory Situational Leadership Theory Substitutes for Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

Path-Goal Theory:

Path-Goal Theory Leaders Influence Satisfaction and Performance Increase Subordinate Outcomes By: Clarifying Path to Goals Reducing Roadblocks to Goals Increase JS on the Way Links to VIE Inclusion of Task Characteristics and Subordinate Characteristics 4 Types of Leaders Supportive (Boring) Directive (Unstructured) Participative (Complex) Achievement-Oriented (High nACH Employees) Mixed Results

Path Goal Theory:

Path Goal Theory Environmental Contingency Factors Task Structure Formal authority system Work Group Subordinate contingency factors Locus of control Experience Perceived ability Outcomes Performance Satisfaction Leader Behavior Directive Supportive Participative Achievement -oriented

Causal Model for Supportive Leader on Subordinate Effort:

Causal Model for Supportive Leader on Subordinate Effort Reduce boredom Make more tolerable Increase confidence And lower anxiety Increase intrinsic Value of work Increase effort-performance expectation Supportive leadership Increase effort *Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4 th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Causal Model for Directive Leadership on Subordinate Effort:

Causal Model for Directive Leadership on Subordinate Effort Reduce role ambiguity Increase incentives Strengthen reward contingencies Increase effort-perform expectation Increase valence for task success Increase perform-reward expectation Directive leadership Increased effort *Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Situational Leadership:

Situational Leadership Heresy & Blanchard (1977) Leadership Depends of “Maturity” of Followers Job Maturity (KSAs) Psychological Maturity (Self-Efficacy) Minimal to Moderate Maturity = Supportive Moderate to Maximum Maturity = Directive Developmental Interventions Simple vs. Contingency Contracting

Hersey & Blanchard’s Model:

Hersey & Blanchard’s Model Supportive Directive M1 M2 M3 M4 Follower Maturity Little Much Amount of Behavior *Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model:

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Follower Readiness SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP Leader Behaviors Mature Immature Relationship Behavior (Supportive Behavior) R2 R1 R3 R4 S4 S1 S3 S2 Moderate Low High High Relationship and Low Task D E L E G A T I N P A R T I C I P A T I N G S E L L I N G T E L L I N G High Task and High Relationship Low Relationship and Low Task High Task and Low Relationship G Task Behavior (Directive Behavior) High Low High Low Source: Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K.H. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Used by permission from Ronald Campbell, President, Leadership Studies, Escondido, California, 1995.

Substitutes for Leadership:

Substitutes for Leadership Kerr & Jermier (1978) Identify Aspects of Situation that Minimize Need for Leaders Substitutes (Task, Organization, Roles, Subordinate Characteristics) Neutralizers (Reward, Authority, External) Substitutes Make Leaders Redundant Strong Support for Substitutes and Neutralizers

Summary of Substitutes Model:

Summary of Substitutes Model Substitute or Neutralizer Supportive Leadership Instrumental (Directive) Leadership Subordinate Characteristics Experience, ability, training Professional orientation Indifference toward reward Substitute Neutralizer Substitute Substitute Neutralizer B. Task Characteristics Structured, routine Feedback provided by task Intrinsically satisfying Substitute Substitute Substitute C. Organization Characteristics Cohesive workgroup Low position power Formalization Inflexibility Dispersed worksites Substitute Neutralizer Neutralizer Substitute Neutralizer Substitute Neutralizer Neutralizer Kerr & Jermier (1978)

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory:

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Fiedler (1964, 1967) Situation Moderates Leader Effectiveness and Subordinate Traits Based on “Least Preferred Coworker” (LPC) Indicates Leader’s Motive Hierarchy (nAFF) High LPC is Considerate Low LPC is Directive Based on Situational Favorability Leader-Member Relations, Position Power, Task Structure

Contingency Theories:

Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.

Fiedler’s LPC Model:

Fiedler’s LPC Model Group performance Leader’s LPC Leader-member relations Leader position power Task structure * Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Slide 84:

LPC contains 16 contrasting adjectives (pleasant- unpleasant ) (efficient – inefficient) Rating scale of 1-8 for each of the contrasting adjectives Rate the coworker the leader least enjoyed working with Based on the respondent’s answers to this LPC questionnaires , his basic leadership style can be determined If the LPC is described in relatively positive terms (high LPC score) ,then the respondent is primarily interested in in good personal relations with the co-worker

Fiedler’s Contingency Model:

Fiedler’s Contingency Model Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + High High High High Low Low Low Low Strong Strong Strong Strong Weak Weak Weak Weak Leader- member relations + Task structure + Position power lead to Effective Leadership styles T T R R R R T T T = task-oriented style R = relationship-oriented style