Phenomenology Presentation

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Phenomenology:

Phenomenology Alexis Swendener , Mathew Stange, & Seth Trenchard SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Phenomenology…A Basic Definition:

Phenomenology…A Basic Definition Describe meaning for several individuals of their lived experiences of a concept or phenomenon. Cresswell (2007) p. 57

Phenomenology…A More Detailed Look:

Phenomenology…A More Detailed Look Phenomenology is not interested in modern science’s focus on simplification and reducing phenomena to abstract laws. Examines how people describe things and experiences through their senses. Creswell (2007) p. 58 Merriam (2009) p. 9

Phenomenology History:

Phenomenology History Draws heavily on the writings of German mathematician Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), which were expanded by Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty . Moustakas is a major name in phenomenology today Creswell (2007)

Phenomenology: Philosophical Underpinnings:

Phenomenology: Philosophical Underpinnings Constructivist: to understand people’s lived experiences with a phenomenon—socially constructed realities. No objective experience Hatch (2002), p. 30 Merriam (2009), p. 9

Phenomenology: Philosophical Underpinnings:

Phenomenology: Philosophical Underpinnings Return to traditional task of philosophy From “scientism” to a broader search for wisdom Philosophy without presuppositions Suspend judgments about what is real, the natural attitude toward a phenomena (i.e. Bracketing) Intentionality of consciousness Refusal of the subject-object dichotomy Reality of phenomena is only understood by the experience of the individual (constructivist) Creswell (2007) pp. 58-59

Fields Often Using Phenomenology:

Fields Often Using Phenomenology Social Sciences Health Sciences Psychology Nursing Education Phenomenology is well-suited to studying research questions involving affective, emotional, and often intense human experiences. Creswell (2007) p. 58

Phenomenology Focus:

Phenomenology Focus Focus on a concept or phenomenon Love, anger, betrayal, happiness, caring, undergoing coronary bypass surgery, what it means to be/experience being underweight, and so on To reduce individual experience with a phenomenon to a description of the universal essence. To derive inner meaning Essence: core meanings, mutually understood through a commonly experienced phenomenon Creswell (2007), p. 94, 58 Merriam (2009), p. 26

Phenomenology Types:

Phenomenology Types Hermeneutical Phenomenology Reflecting on lived experiences with interpretation by the researcher. Transcendental Phenomenology Focus less on the researcher’s interpretation and more on the describing experiences of participants. Creswell (2007) pp. 59-60

Units of Analysis:

Units of Analysis Primarily people But also, art, literature, poetry, biographies, novels, diaries, journals, music, and so on. Hatch (2002), p. 30 Creswell (2007), p. 61

Phenomenology Process/Methods:

Phenomenology Process/Methods Determine Phenomenology is best approach for research question/objective Identify the phenomenon to study Recognize the philosophical assumptions of phenomenology Describe researcher’s own experiences with phenomenon SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Phenomenology Process/Methods:

Phenomenology Process/Methods Bracket (or epoche ) researcher’s assumptions regarding phenomenon Collect data about experiences with phenomenon Develop a composite description of experiences What and how experienced SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Bracketing:

Bracketing The process of setting aside the researcher’s experiences with the phenomenon to better examine the consciousness itself Setting aside one’s own understanding of the phenomenon to look at how other people experience the phenomenon. By detailing the researcher’s experiences with the phenomenon, they highlight their bias( es ) SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Sampling:

Sampling A criterion sample: the individuals must have experienced the phenomenon. Usually interviews with 5 to 25 people The more diverse the people, the harder it is to find common experiences. Creswell (2007), pp. 120-121

Data Collection:

Data Collection Protocol writing Individuals write-up their own experiences Interviewing Gather narrative data from conversation Observation Gather data by observing Studying art, literature, diaries, journals, music, and so on SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Data Collection:

Data Collection Two broad questions are the focus of the interview: What have you experienced in terms of this phenomenon? What contexts or situations have typically influenced or affected your experiences of the phenomenon? SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Data Analysis:

Data Analysis Horizontalization Laying out all the data to examine it as equals Highlight significant statements that provide understanding of participants’ experiences Organize the data into clusters and themes Phenomenological Reduction Process of continually returning to the essence of the experience to derive inner meaning SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Data Analysis:

Data Analysis Textual description of participants’ experiences Imaginative Variation: Description of the context and how participants experienced the phenomenon Description of the researcher’s experiences Write a composite description of the phenomenon The essence Focus on common experiences of participants, the underlying structure of experiences SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

Reporting Format:

Reporting Format Moustakas’s structure for a phenomenological study’s write-up: Introduction and statement of topic and outline Review of relevant literature Conceptual framework of the model Methodology Presentation of data Summary, implications, and outcomes Creswell (2007), pp. 187-188

Examples:

Examples Anderson, E. H., & Spencer, M. H. (2002). Cognitive Representations of AIDS Riemen , D. J. (1986). The Essential Structure of a Caring Interaction: Doing Phenomenology. SOCI 407/807 Strategies of Social Research: Qualitative Methods

“The reader should come away from the phenomenology with the feeling, ‘I understand better what it is like for someone to experience that.’”:

“The reader should come away from the phenomenology with the feeling, ‘I understand better what it is like for someone to experience that.’” Questions? Polkinghorne (1989), p. 146, quoted in Creswell (2007), p. 62