microbes for dummies

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CHAPTER 1. back 2 basics BACTERIA

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PEPTIDOGLYCAN = CELL WALL

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PEPTIDOGLYCAN DISACCHARIDES 4 AMINO ACIDS

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GRAM + PERIPLASMIC SPACE PLASMA MEMBRANE PEPTIDOGLYCAN

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GRAM - PERIPLASMIC SPACE MUREIN LIPOPROTEIN OUTER MEMEBRANE LPS

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YOUR SHAPE COCCI SPIRALS PLEO- JELO -MORPHIC RODS

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GRAM + COCCI - STREP & STEPH ROD - BACILLUS CLOSTRIDIUM CORYNEBACTERIUM LISTERIA

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GRAM - COCCI - NEISSERIA SPIRAL - SPIROCHETES PLEOMORPHIC – CHLAMYDIA, RICKETTSIAE BACILLUS – THE REST OF THE GANG

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DEFENCE

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FLAGELLA MOVEMENT

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PILI ADHERENCE SEX

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CAPSULES PROTECTION FROM MACROPHAGES

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SPORES OFFER PROTECTION AGAINST HEAT COLD DRYING CHEMICALS ONLY AVAILABLE TO BACILLUS CLOSTRIDIUM

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OFFENCE

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TOXINS NEUROTOXINS ENTEROTOXINS PYROTOXINS TISSUE INVASIVE TOXINS

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SPECIAL EDITION TOXINS SHIGA TOXIN – SHIGELLA TETANOSPASMIN – C.TETANI BOTULINUM TOXIN – C.BOTULINUM TSST-1 – S.AUREUS DIPHTHERIA TOXIN – C.DIPTHERIA ANTHRAX TOXIN – B.ANTHRACIS

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CLAN MINORITIES GRAM + THE NEISSERIA THE ENTERICS FLU CLAN THE ANIMAL CLAN THE THIEF CLAN SPIRALS THE OUTCASTS

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THE GRAM + MINORITIES

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THE GRAM + MINORITIES Streptococci Staphylococci

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THE GRAM + MINORITIES Spore forming rods Bacillus: B. Anthracis Clostridium (anaerobic): C. Tetani C.Botulinum C.Perfringens toxins Found on soil , sheep , skin Inhaled Infection: cutaneous , respiratory, GI

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Clostridium Perfringens Requires blood tissue to grow Lives in soil Causes gas gangrene Toxins Alpha, beta, epsilon, theta, kappa Treatment: Metronidazole

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Clostridium Tetani Found on the ground. motile Toxins: prevent GABA release – sustained tetanic contraction Treatment: DTP ( prophylaxis) Penicilln ( treatment) Human tetanus immune globulin (treatment)

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Clostridium botulinum 7 toxigenic strains Produce neurotoxin causing paralysis Two types of infection Ingestion of toxin Ingestion of microbe

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THE GRAM + MINORITIES Non-spore forming rods Corynebacterium : C.Diphtheriae Species: Mitis , Gravis, Intermedius Loeffler’s Toxin – prevent protein synthesis Cause: diphtheria, pseudomembrane , launches fatal toxins to heart & CNS Vaccination: DTP

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2.The Neisseria clan

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The Neisseria clan

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The Neisseria clan N. meningitis Meninggococcus Dwell in nosopharynx Causes meningitis lPS destroy vessels causing petechial rash

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The Neisseria clan N. Gonorrhea Specialised Pili – prevents phagocytosis Pelvic infections Opthalmia Neonatorum in new borns

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3. The enterics clan

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3. The enterics clan

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3. The enterics clan Enterobacteriacea E. Coli Shigella Salmonella typhi Most are facultative anaerobe

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3. The enterics clan Enterobacteriacea E.Coli Intestinal dweller Only one that Ferments lactose 5 main strains Causes UTI & Diarrhea

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3. The enterics clan Enterobacteriacea salmonella Species: Typhi & Paratyphi NOT a normal flora Found in animals Clinical manifestation: Typhoid fever Sepsis Carrier gastroenteritis

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3. The enterics clan Enterobacteriacea shigella Species: Dysentry , Flexneri , Boydii , Sonnei Not a normal flora Shiga toxin Non-motile Causes bacteria dysentry

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3. The enterics clan vibrionacea “ They say being lovesick is like having V.Cholera , your diarrhea looks like rice water” Helicobacter Pylori Campylobacter Jejuni V.Cholera

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3. The enterics clan Vibrio cholera Choleragen : produce cAMP intracellularly , pushes na + , Cl - out Cholera O antigen: O1- eltor & cholerae ( serotype ogawa , Inaba , Hikojima ) O139- bengal 7 world wide pandemics

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3. The enterics clan BLOODY DIARRHEA WATERY DIARRHEA BLOODY OR WATERY

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3. The enterics clan Pseudomonadacea P.Aeruginosa Common hospital acquired infection Colonised sick people Resistant to most antibotics Causes: pneumonia , endocarditis , UTI, burn infection, osteomyelitis

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4.The flu clan

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4.The flu clan Haemophilus influenza Bordetella pertusis - causes whooping cough Legionella pneumonia

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4.The flu clan Bordetella pertusis Bordet gengau glycerine potato blood agar Toxins: Filamentous hemaglutinin Pertusis & adenylate cyclase Tracheal toxin Very infectious!

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5. The animal clan

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5. The animal clan Yersina Pestis bubonic plague Carried by rats , transmitted by fleas swollen lymph nodes near the groin hence the name bubonic ( boubon = groin in greek ) Death can come within 2 days if without treatment

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Yersina Pestis Antigenic structure : F1 & VW antigen – antiphagocytic Bi polar staining Test: inject sample into rat

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5. The animal clan Francisella F. TULARENSIS Infection by bites or contact Forms Uleroglandular Pneumonic Oculoglandular Typhoidal 10 organism is sufficient to cause infection

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5. The animal clan B. MELITENSIS B.ABORTUS B. CANIS B .SUIS BRUCELLA Undulant fever

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6. THE THIEF CLAN

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6. THE THIEF CLAN THESE GUYS STEAL ATP THEY ARE OBLIGATE INTRACELULLAR PARASITES ABIT LIKE VIRUS THEY NEED TO ENTER HARD TO REACH PLACES SO THEY ARE SMALL & PLEOMORPHIC

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6. THE THIEF CLAN CHLAMYDIA C.TRACHOMATIS CAUSES CERVICITIS, TRACHOMA C.PSITTACI C.PNEUMONIA CAUSES ATYPICAL PNEUMONIA CHLAMYDIA SOUNDS LIKE CLAM AND HE LOVEs MUCOUS MEMBRANE

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6. THE THIEF CLAN RICKETTSIA LOVES VESSEL LINING CAUSES ROCKY MOUNTAIN FEVER TYPHUS Q FEVER SYMPTOMS: RASHES, HIGH FEVER, HEADACHE

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7. THE SPIRAL CLAN TREPONEMA BORELLA LEPTOSPIRA Dark field microscopy, romanovsky giemsa , silver impregnation

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LEPTOSPIRA INTTEROGANS Found in most lifestock & wild animals especially rats Transmision through contact with urine Causes multi organ failure

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Treponema Pallidum 4 forms: Veneral syphilis Endemic syphilis Yaws Pinta Sexual tranmision 3 stages Initial chancre formation disseminated Gumma formation Wasserman test

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Borellia Lyme Relapsing fever

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8.THE OUTCASTS

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8.THE OUTCASTS TB GRAM + ACID FAST RODS MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS “Growing TB is like growing a Bonzai plant” Obligate aerobe 6 weeks to grow on egg and malachite green Colonies are aqua phobic Toxin – damage mitochondria Mech – immune Phase- 2 Test- mantoux , zeil neeison Drug – BCG, pyrazinamid , rifampicin

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MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE Impossible to grow on artificial media Loves cool areas 2 forms Lepramatous leprosy Tuberculoid leprosy Leperamin skin test Carried by animals

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8.THE OUTCASTS MYCOPLASMA X CELL WALL X PROPER SHAPE X REALLY AFFECTED BY ANTIBIOTICS MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA MYCOPLASMA UREALYTICUM

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THE GRAM + MINORITIES Streptococci Staphylococci Loves blood

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What does streptococci do? STRIP Line up like a Of candy

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STREPTOCOCCI BETA HEMOLYTIC ALPHA HEMOLYTIC GAMMA HEMOLYTIC A B C D E LANCEFIELD AG

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Streptococci M – proteins : prevent phagocytosis Streptolysin O & S : causes hemolysis Streptokinase : breaks clots Other - ase enzyme : avoid inflammatory reaction

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STREP SKIN INFECTION GROUP A BETA-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI SCARLET FEVER STREP PHARINGITIS LOCAL INVASION + TOXINS STREPTOCOCCAL PHARINGITIS STREPTOCOCCAL SKIN INVASION SCARLET FEVER STREPTOCOCCAL TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME S.PYOGENES

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GROUP A BETA-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI GLOMERULONEPHRITIS RHEUMATIC FEVER AUTOIMMUNE S.PYOGENES

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TO DIFFERENTIATE STREP AND STAPH WE DO THE CATALASE TEST STAPHYLOCOCCUS ARE RESISTANT TO CERTAIN ANTIBIOTICS CATALASE NEGATIVE STREPTOCOCCUS CATALASE POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCUS

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Staphylococcus Grape like clusters Pathogenicity Protein A Coagulase Hemolysin Leukocidins Penicillinase Hyaluronidase Lipase Exfoliatin Enterotoxin Staphylokinase “Please Come Help Lucy Peel Her Little Exposed Skin”

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STAPHYLOCOCCUS S. AUREUS (is only coagulase +) S. EPIDERMIDIS S.SAPROPHYTICUS

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STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FOOD POISONING EXOTOXIN CAUSES GASTROENTERITIS TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME ORGAN INVASION PNEUMONIA MENINGITIS OSTEOMYELITIS ENDOCARDITIS ARTHRITIS UTI

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Staph Saprophyticus UTI in sexually active young females Staph Epidermidis Hospital infection through various entrance such as catheter, IV line, Prostehtics

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SKIN FORMS OF STREP & STAPH INFECTION IMPETIGO S.AUREUS & STREPTOCOCCUS SUPERFICIAL SKIN INFECTION “INFECTIOUS BLISTER” COMMONLY EFFECT CHILDREN AND ACUIRE D THROUGH CONTACT CELLULITIS S.AUREUS & STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTION DIFFUSE INFLAMATION OF DERMIS AND SUBQ

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NECROTZING FASCIITIS “FLESH EATNG DISEASE” STREP PYOGENES, STAPHY AUREUS, C. PERFRINGENS ERYSIPELAS (HOLY FIRE) STREPTOCCOCUS A DERMIS INFECTION HIGH FEVER, VOMITING, CHILLS, HEADACHE, SHAKING SKIN FORMS OF STREP & STAPH INFECTION

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QUIZ BACTEREMIA ?? TOXAEMIA? SEPTICEMIA/SEPSIS ? BACTERIA IN BLOOD TOXIN IN BLOOD BODY FOUND OUT THAT THERE IS BACTERIA & TOXIN IN THE BLOOD

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the GREATEST achievment There Was A Bacteria Name Neiserria Who Found His Way Into A Girl Named Mia Sex Day And Night, He Mulitiplied . And Made Sure, He Never Died Too Many Was He, Mia’s Body Soon Found Out And Then It Started To Shout Came The Cytokines , The Interleukins, These Useless Ruts Wanting To Kick Neiserria’s Butt To Bad For Mia, Her BP Dropped, Her Vessels flopped Well, Her Organs All Kinda Popped It Was No Surprised , It Was No Shock Mr Neiserria Was Awarded With SEPTIC SHOCK

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THE END

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