Pollution (Arpit Semwal)

Category: Education

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What is Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.

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Pollution can take the form of CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES or ENERGY, such as noise, heat, or light.

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AIR POLLUTION : Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological matters that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment , into the atmosphere.

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How can air pollution hurt our health ? Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution

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People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted

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Ways To Prevent Air Pollution Car Pool : Forming and implementing a car pool will reduce the number of cars, thereby, preventing air pollution Vehicle Care: Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it in a good condition and also minimizes fuel exhaust. Alternative Energy Source: Another effective way to prevent air pollution is to use alternative energy sources such as solar enrgy , hydroelectric energy and wind energy.

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WATER POLLUTION : It is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

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THE CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION : Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers.

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Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. Different items take different lengths of time to degrade in water .

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Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment.

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Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats .

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Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources: Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of marine nuclear waste. Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is used in many industrial, medical and scientific processes. URANIUM MINE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

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A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated.

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What are the Ways to Prevent Water Pollution? Toxic products like paints, automobile oil, polishes, and cleaning products should be stored and disposed off properly. Dispose off your trash in a proper manner and try and incorporate the recycling habit as far as possible. Try using natural fertilizers and pesticides as far as possible, or if not, do not overuse them or over-water gardens and lawns.

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SOIL POLLUTION Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury,pesticides .

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What Causes Soil Pollution? Industrial wastes, such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most important causes of soil pollution. Ignorance towards soil management and related systems. Leakages from sanitary sewage.

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What are the Effects of Soil Pollution? Decrease in soil fertility and therefore decrease in the soil yield. Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it Disturbance in the balance of flora and fauna residing in the soil.

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a) Ban on use of plastic bags (below 20 microns thickness) - which are major cause of pollution in cities b) Recycling of plastic wastes to manufacture many 'remake' items c) Ban on deforestation d) Encouraging forest replantation programmes e) Encouraging social and agro forestry programmes f) Undertaking many pollution awareness programmes Control of Soil Pollution

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NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting, irritating, or damaging sounds are freely audible. As with other forms of energy pollution (such as heat and light pollution), noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles, but rather waves that interfere with naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment.

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Causes Of Noise Pollution Traffic noise is the main source of noise pollution caused in urban areas. With the low flying military aircrafts soaring over the national parks, wasteland and other vacant areas, the level of noise pollution has drastically increased People living beside railway stations put up with a lot of noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles and switching and shunting operation in rail yards.

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EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION Hearing Problems: Exposure to noise can damage one of the most vital organs of the body, the ear. Cardiovascular Issues: A noisy environment can be a source of heart related problems. Sleep Disturbances: This is one of the noise pollution effects that can deter your overall well being

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REDUCTION OF NOISE POLLUTION To decrease noise, one can install dual-paned windows. Offices, too can use windows to curb noise levels. Use of music systems and television sets with high volumes can cause noise pollution at home. Instead, using these appliances with the volume kept at a moderate level is a better option.

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MARINE POLLUTION Marine pollution occurs when harmful effects, or potentially harmful effects, can result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris.

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CAUSES OF MARINE POLLUTION One of the major causes of ocean pollution is the discharge of crude oil, accidental or deliberate, in the oceans. This happens in course of transportation of ships, when these ships discharge their waste in the ocean. Another important cause of marine pollution is industrial waste dumping. Garbage dumping, i.e. channeling of human waste into the ocean as a method of garbage treatment, is another major cause of ocean pollution

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EFFECTS OF MARINE POLLUTION Ocean pollution is hazardous for marine life. Oil spilled in oceans is disastrous for all forms of marine life including coral reefs, fish, and marine plants Ocean pollution leads to depletion of oxygen dissolved in water, which in turn makes it difficult for various sea animals to breathe underwater. Humans are not left out the hazardous effects of ocean pollution as marine life is a major source of food for humans.

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PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION Ensuring that there is no leakage of crude oil from tankers by regular monitoring of vessels by proper agencies. Ensuring that garbage produced by humans is treated properly instead of just dumping it in the oceans. Understanding the importance of marine life for us and making sure that we don't cause harm to them.

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THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.

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Causes of Thermal Pollution From motor vehicles to most of the electricity produced at power plants, the primary form of energy involved is heat. The device that converts heat into other useful forms of energy is called a heat engine. A common example of a heat engine is a car engine in which heat energy is released from oil burning converting into mechanical energy or motion.

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Effects of Thermal Pollution The residual heat released by power plants adds to the environment and impacts its inhabitants harshly. Since hot water holds relatively less oxygen; many species in these habitats face difficulty in survival. The cooling towers used in power plants release heat directly into the atmosphere, which raises the air temperature drastically, thus contributing to global warming .

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How to Control Thermal Pollution The problem of thermal pollution is unavoidable. It can be reduced, however. Engineers can make efforts to ensure minimum heat losses by improving thermal efficiencies of heat engines. Nonetheless, the best solution is to reduce consumption of fossil fuels and to limit day-to-day energy usage. The development of alternative energy resources such as solar power, wind energy and hydropower can also be beneficial.

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