logging in or signing up WATER TREATMENT aSGuest84625 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 2527 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: February 02, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 3 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Water treatment Dr p v singh Asst.professor Cert Meerut..GENERAL INTRODUCTON: GENERAL INTRODUCTON Water is a natural gift on earth It is essential for human, animal and plants. It is used widely for domestic and industrial purpose In nature water is present in abundance 96% of water form ocean, 2.2% form ice 1.2% form ground waterHARDNESS OF WATER: HARDNESS OF WATER calcium and magnesium salts are present in rocks are dissolved in water and make it hard. Temporary hardness : it is caused due to presence of bicarbonates of Ca and Mg It can be removed by boiling of water. Ca (HCO 3 ) 2 -------→ CaCO3↓ + H 2 O+ CO 2 ↑ Mg (HCO 3 ) 2 --------→ MgCO 3 ↓ + H 2 O+ CO 2 ↑ Permanent hardness: caused due to dissolution of CaCl 2 ,MgCl2,CaSO4 and MgSO 4 . Can not removed by boiling .Hard water causes: Hard water causes Scale and sludge formation Caustic embrittlement Boiler corrosion Priming and foaming. Treatment of boiler feed waterTreatment of boiler feed water : Treatment of boiler feed water Carbonate conditioning: by introducing sodium carbonate CaSO 4 + Na 2 CO 3 → CaCO 3 ↓+ Na 2 SO 4 Phosphate conditioning: By Introducing Tri Sodium Phosphate 2Na 3 PO 4 +3CaCO 3 → Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 3 + 3Na 2 CO 3 Calgon Process: it is known as sodium hexametaphosphate. It forms soluble compound with calcium salt and hence prevent scale and sludge formation Na 2 [Na 4 (PO 3 ) 6 ] <===> 2Na + +[Na 4 P 6 O 18 ] 2- 2CaSO 4 +[Na 4 P 6 O 18 ] 2- →[Ca 2 P 6 O 18 ] 2 - + 2Na 2 SO 4Water softening process: Water softening process The various process for water softening are used which are as follow : Zeolite process Ion exchange process Reverse osmosis process Lime soda processZEOLITE ??: ZEOLITE ?? Zeolite is also known as Permutit. The general formula of zeolite: Na 2 OAl 2 O 3 . x SiO 2 . y H 2 O It holds sodium ions loosely that is replaced by calcium or magnesium. It is of two types natural and synthetic .ZEOLITE PROCESS: ZEOLITE PROCESSSlide 9: CHEMICAL REACTIONS Na 2 Z +CaCl 2 → CaZ +2NaCl Na 2 Z +MgCl 2 → MgZ +2NaCl Na 2 Z +CaSO 4 → CaZ +Na 2 SO 4 Na 2 Z +MgSO 4 → MgZ +Na 2 SO 4 Na 2 Z +Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 → CaZ +2NaHCO 3 Na 2 Z +Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 → MgZ +2NaHCO 3 REGENERATION OF ZEOLITE CaZ + 2NaCl→ Na 2 Z +CaCl 2 MgZ + 2NaCl→ Na 2 Z +MgCl 2ZEOLITE PROCESS: ZEOLITE PROCESS ADVANTAGES Remove almost complete hardness and produce water up to 10ppm hardness. No sludge formation occurs. Method is cheap since zeolite can be reuse. DISADVANTAGES Treated water contains more sodium salt. Method is not useful for treatment of turbid water. Can not remove acidic ions. Capable only for replacing Ca and Mg ions .Slide 11: Ion exchange Resins Ion exchange resins are insoluble,crosslinked,high molecular weight organic polymer with porous structure. The functional group attached to the chain are responsible for exchanging the ions. Cation Exchangers: - Strongly acidic – functional groups derived from strong acids e.g., R-SO 3 H ( sulfonic ). - Weakly acidic – functional groups derived from weak acids, e.g., R-COOH (carboxylicSlide 12: Anionic Exchangers: Strongly basic – functional groups derived from quaternary ammonia compounds, R-N-OH. Weakly basic - functional groups derived from primary and secondary amines, R-NH 3 OH or R-R’-NH 2 OH.ION EXCHANGE RESINS: ION EXCHANGE RESINS CATION EXCHANGER ANION EXCHANGERION EXCHANGE PROCESS: ION EXCHANGE PROCESSSOFTENING PROCESS: SOFTENING PROCESS Cation exchange reactions 2RH + Ca ++ → R 2 Ca + 2H + 2RH + Mg ++ → R2Mg + 2H + Anion exchange reactions ROH + Cl - → RCl + OH - 2ROH + CO 3 → R 2 CO 3 + 2OH - H + + OH - -----→ H 2 OSlide 16: THANKS !! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.