INORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS

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Studies on inorganic and organic ion exchange materials and Their applications to environmental analysis. DR P V SINGH ASST PROF. & HEAD APPLIED CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT COLLEGE OF ENGG. & RURAL TECHNOLOGY MEERUT.

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Ion exchange process The ion exchange is most important analytical technique which is applied to both micro as well as macro analysis and separation of ionic species. In a true ion exchange process, the exchange of anions takes place stoichiometrically between the stationary and mobile phase. A typical ion exchange reaction represents as: R-A+B(aq) <===> R-B+ A(aq) where A & B are replacable ions,R is the matrix of exchangers and (aq) stands for aqueous phase

ORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS OR RESINS These are insoluble,crosslinked,long chain polymer with a micro porous structure and functional group attached to chain are responsible for exchange of ions.These resins have high ion exchange capacity, chemical stability uniformity and provide reproducible response. : 

ORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS OR RESINS These are insoluble,crosslinked,long chain polymer with a micro porous structure and functional group attached to chain are responsible for exchange of ions.These resins have high ion exchange capacity, chemical stability uniformity and provide reproducible response.

Cation Exchangers- Strongly acidic – functional groups derived from strong acids e.g., R-SO3H (sulfonic).-  Weakly acidic – functional groups derived from weak acids, e.g., R-COOH (carboxylic) : 

Cation Exchangers- Strongly acidic – functional groups derived from strong acids e.g., R-SO3H (sulfonic).-  Weakly acidic – functional groups derived from weak acids, e.g., R-COOH (carboxylic)

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ANIONIC EXCHANGERS: Strongly basic – functional groups derived from quaternary ammonia compounds, R-N-OH. Weakly basic - functional groups derived from primary and secondary amines, R-NH3OH or R-R’-NH2OH.

Inorganic ion exchangers : 

Inorganic ion exchangers Inorganic ion exchangers The inorganic ion exchangers are generally the oxides, hydroxides and insoluble acid salts of poly valent metals, heteropoly acid salts and insoluble metal ferrocyanides. In order to characterize a new substance as an inorganic ion exchanger, the following properties may be studied as per give order of preference Ion exchange capacity Chemical and thermal stability Composition pH titration Structural studies Selectivity Analytical applications.

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Selectivity Coefficients Preference for ions of particular resins is often expressed through an equilibrium relationship using the selectivity coefficient. The coefficient is described below. For the exchange of A+ in solution for B+ on the resin: The barred terms indicate location on the resin (resin phase) as opposed to solution phase For this exchange an operational equilibrium constant can be defined.

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Properties of inorganic ion exchangers They are stable at high temperature and in high radiation field. They are virtually insoluble within a reasonable wide pH ranges They have good ion exchange capacity. They possess high selectivity for certain metal ions. They show rapid sorption and elution behavior.

APPLICATIONS OF INORGANIC ION EXCHANGE MATERIAL : 

APPLICATIONS OF INORGANIC ION EXCHANGE MATERIAL Used in treatment of water and waste water For treatment of industrial and radioactive waste Used for processing of radioisotopes in nuclear technology For determination and separation of metal ions Removal of interfering ions.

Applications of inorganic ion exchange materials : 

Applications of inorganic ion exchange materials Used for preparation of ion selective electrodes Used in pharmaceutical analysis. Used in analysis of rocks, minerals and alloys. Recovery of precious metals. Separation of organic and biologically important substances. Used as packing material for chromatography.

Water softening : 

Water softening

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ADSORPTION Adsorption is the process in which matter is extracted from one phase and concentrated at the surface of a second phase. (Interface accumulation). This is a surface phenomenon as opposed to absorption where matter changes solution phase, e.g. gas transfer. This is demonstrated in the following schematic.

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Langmuir Isotherm: This model assumes monolayer coverage and constant binding energy between surface and adsorbate. The model is: represents the maximum adsorption capacity (monolayer coverage) (g solute/g adsorbent). Ce has units of mg/L. K has units of L/mg

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Freundlich Isotherm: For the special case of heterogeneous surface energies (particularly good for mixed wastes) in which the energy term, “KF”, varies as a function of surface coverage we use the Freundlich model. . Log qe= log KF + (1/n) Log Ce qe is the amount adsorbed, Ce is the equilibrium concentration of the adsorbate and KF and n are Freundlich constant.

Work carried out : 

Work carried out Zirconium(IV) iodooxalate Zirconium(IV) iodovanadate Zirconium(IV) selnoiodate Duolite C-433 Zirconium(IV) telluroiodate Stannic(IV) iodovanadate Stannic(IV) iodotungstate

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THANKS !!

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