English Sentence Types

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English Sentence Types : 

Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences In Fiddler’s Green! English Sentence Types

Contents : 

The next few slides will describe the method of identifying simple, compound, and complex sentences. These are the basic sentence types in English. After the description of these types, music will play for you and you can follow along with the lyrics. Their sentence structure will be identified for you. Once the song is finished, there will be a short quiz for you to test yourself at home to see if you have grasped the elements of the three basic sentences. Contents

Simple Sentences : 

A simple sentence is, essentially, an independent clause; that is, a phrase that contains a subject, verb, and complete thought. An independent clause that can stand alone is what defines a simple sentence. The sentence does not necessarily need to be short or dull, and can convey a very complex thought. It just does not have a complex structure. Note that simple sentences can contain compound nouns and compound verbs without becoming compound sentences. The presence of a compound noun or verb does not necessarily indicate another clause. Simple Sentences

Compound Sentences : 

A compound sentence consists of two more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, a conjunctive adverb, a semicolon, or, sometimes, a dash. There are seven coordinating conjunctions in English: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. The mnemonic device fanboys may help with recalling these. A conjunctive adverb creates a relationship between the two clauses by contrasting/comparing them, adding emphasis, signifying a conclusion, or indicating time. Common conjunctive adverbs are: consequently, furthermore, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, moreover, nonetheless, next, then, therefore, and thus. Compound Sentences

Complex Sentences : 

A complex sentence differs from a compound sentence in that it consists of an independent clause supporting one more dependent clauses. A dependent clause has a subject and a verb, but lacks a complete thought and cannot be used as a sentence by itself. Instead, it is linked to the independent clause through the use of a subordinating conjunction that defines the relationship between the two clauses. Subordinating conjunctions can make a clause adverbial or adjectival, depending on whether the clause is being related to the noun or to the verb. Complex Sentences

Subordinating Conjunctions : 

The subordinating conjunctions that go with an adjectival dependent clause begin with relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, or that. The subordinating conjunctions for adverbial dependent clauses are varied, but they all provide information explaining how, when, where, why, to what extent, under what conditions or in which manner. Common subordinating conjunctions that begin adverbial clauses are: after, as, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, while, where, wherever, although, unless, because, so that, as if, then, as long as, whether, and if. Subordinating Conjunctions

Warnings : 

There are ways to further complicate sentences. For example, noun clauses can seem to make the same sentence simple and complex. These, and other exceptions, are not addressed here, but you should be aware they exist. Identifying sentence types will help you avoid run-on sentences: two or more independent clauses slammed together without a logical joining. Recognizing independent clauses from dependent ones is crucial in avoiding sentence fragments: lone dependent clauses used as a sentence, but lacking a complete thought. Be aware that compound sentences can contain dependent clauses which create complex-compound sentences. These are identical to complex sentences, but they feature multiple independent clauses. Warnings

Fiddler’s Green : 

Follow along with this Irish folk song as we use it as an example of the basic sentences. As the lyrics appear, the sentence type will show at the top of the screen and parts of the lyric will be marked to show its parts. Independent clauses will be in orange. Dependent clauses will be in yellow. Coordinating conjunctions will be italicized, including conjunctive adverbs and semicolons. Subordinating conjunctions will be underlined. For the purpose of identifying sentences, it makes no difference if a dependent clause is adverbial or adjectival. Fiddler’s Green

Complex : 

As I walked by the dockside one evening so rareto view the salt waters and take the salt air, I spied an old fisherman singing a song. The subordinating conjunction AS precedes the dependent clause, making this a complex sentence. Complex

Compound : 

“Oh, take me away, boys; my time is not long.” The semicolon between two independent clauses makes this a compound sentence. Compound

Simple : 

“Wrap me up in my oilskin and blankets. No more at the docks I'll be seen. Both of these sentences are independent clauses, making them simple. Simple

Compound : 

Just tell my old shipmates: I'm taking a trip, mates, and I'll see you someday at Fiddler’s Green.” This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND is joining two independent clauses. Compound

Compound-Complex : 

Now Fiddler's Green is a place I've heard tell where the fishermen go if they don't go to hell, where the weather is fair and the dolphins do play, and the cold coast of Greenland is far, far away. This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND joins two independent clauses, but it is also complex because there are two dependent clauses with the subordinating conjunction WHEN. Compound-Complex

Simple : 

“Wrap me up in my oilskin and blankets. No more at the docks I'll be seen. Both of these sentences are independent clauses, making them simple. Simple

Compound : 

Just tell my old shipmates: I'm taking a trip, mates, and I'll see you someday at Fiddler’s Green.” This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND is joining two independent clauses. Compound

Simple : 

“Wrap me up in my oilskin and blankets. No more at the docks I'll be seen. Both of these sentences are independent clauses, making them simple. Simple

Compound : 

Just tell my old shipmates: I'm taking a trip, mates, and I'll see you someday at Fiddler’s Green.” This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND is joining two independent clauses. Compound

Compound-Complex : 

When you're in dock and the long trip is through, there are pubs and there are clubs and there are lassies there, too. The subordinating conjunction WHEN begins the dependent clause in this sentence, making it complex. The multiple, short independent clauses, joined by the coordinating conjunction AND makes it compound, too. Compound-Complex

Compound : 

The girls are all pretty and the beer is all freeand there's bottles of rum growing on every tree. The coordinating conjunction AND puts all these independent clauses together in a compound sentence. Compound

Simple : 

“Wrap me up in my oilskin and blankets. No more at the docks I'll be seen. Both of these sentences are independent clauses, making them simple. Simple

Compound : 

Just tell my old shipmates: I'm taking a trip, mates, and I'll see you someday at Fiddler’s Green.” This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND is joining two independent clauses. Compound

Simple : 

Now I don't want a harp nor a halo, not me. Just give me a breeze and a good rolling sea. These two simple sentences are only independent clauses. Simple

Complex : 

I'll play my old squeeze-box as we sail along with the wind in the rigging to sing me a song. The subordinate conjunction AS begins the dependent clause, making this sentence complex. Complex

Simple : 

“Wrap me up in my oilskin and blankets. No more at the docks I'll be seen. Both of these sentences are independent clauses, making them simple. Simple

Compound : 

Just tell my old shipmates: I'm taking a trip, mates, and I'll see you someday at Fiddler’s Green.” This is a compound sentence because the coordinating conjunction AND is joining two independent clauses. Compound

Quiz : 

Time to test your knowledge! The following three slides have several lines each from old folk songs, paraphrased to be more useful as study sentences. For each given line, you must decide if it is a compound, complex, or simple sentence. If it is a compound, also note the coordinating conjunction or conjunctive adverb. If it is complex, note the dependent clause. Be warned: some lines might be a fragment or a run-on sentence! If you find one, just note what it is. Note: You are not expected to recognize a complex-compound sentence in this exercise. None of the following sentences are complex-compound. Quiz

Finnegan’s Wake : 

A gentle Irishman, mighty odd. He fell from a ladder and broke his skull, so they carried him home. Mrs. Finnegan called for lunch. Biddy gave Patty a belt on the gob and left her sprawling on the floor. It missed, and it landed on the bed, and the liquor scattered over Tim. “Thundering hell, do you think I'm dead?" Finnegan’s Wake

Whiskey in the Jar : 

As I was going over the far-famed Kerry Mountains, I met with Captain Farrell. I put the money in my pocket, and I took it home to Jenny. I dreamt of gold and jewels, but Jenny took my charges and she filled them up with water. I first produced my pistol, because she stole away my rapier. If he’ll come and save me, we’ll go roving near Kilkenny. Some men take delight in the drinking and the roving. Whiskey in the Jar

Danny Boy : 

The pipes are calling from glen to glen. Come ye back when summer’s in the meadow. I am dead, as dead I well may be, you’ll come and find the place where I am lying. I shall hear, though soft you tread above me, and warmer and sweeter my dreams shall be. If you’ll not fail to tell me that you love me, I’ll sleep in peace until you come to me. Danny Boy

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