INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM PPT

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PRAVIN S. SATPUTE MBA - II [FINANCE] ROLL NO. 24 SANGITA PUND MBA – II [FINANCE] ROLL NO. 22 INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM

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An institutional framework existing in a country to enable financial transactions Three main parts Financial assets (loans, deposits, bonds, equities, etc.) Financial institutions (banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, etc.) Financial markets (money market, capital market, forex market, etc.) Regulation is another aspect of the financial system (RBI, SEBI, IRDA, FMC) Financial System

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Enable channelizing funds from surplus units to deficit units Instruments for savers Instruments for borrowers Businesses, governments too raise funds through issuing of bonds, Treasury bills, etc. Financial assets/instruments

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Money Market- for short-term funds (less than a year) Organised (Banks) Unorganized (money lenders, chit funds, etc.) Capital Market- for long-term funds Primary Issues Market Stock Market Bond Market Financial Markets

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Call money market Bill Market Treasury bills Commercial bills Bank loans (short-term) Organised money market comprises RBI, banks (commercial and co-operative) Organised Money Market

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Is an integral part of the Indian money market where day-to-day surplus funds (mostly of banks) are traded. call money notice money term money Call money market

Call loans are generally made on a clean basis- i.e. no collateral is required The main function of the call money market is to redistribute the pool of day-to-day surplus funds of banks among other banks in temporary deficit of funds The call market helps banks economies their cash and yet improve their liquidity It is a highly competitive and sensitive market It acts as a good indicator of the liquidity position : 

Call money market Call loans are generally made on a clean basis- i.e. no collateral is required The main function of the call money market is to redistribute the pool of day-to-day surplus funds of banks among other banks in temporary deficit of funds The call market helps banks economies their cash and yet improve their liquidity It is a highly competitive and sensitive market It acts as a good indicator of the liquidity position

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Money Market Instruments Certificates of Deposit Commercial Paper Inter-bank participation certificates Inter-bank term money Treasury Bills Bill rediscounting Call/notice/term money

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Indian Banking System Central Bank (Reserve Bank of India) Commercial banks (222) Co-operative banks Banks can be classified as: Scheduled (Second Schedule of RBI Act, 1934) - 218 Non-Scheduled - 4 Scheduled banks can be classified as: Public Sector Banks (28) Private Sector Banks (Old and New) (27) Foreign Banks (29) Regional Rural Banks (133)

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Indigenous bankers Individual bankers like Shroffs, Seths, Sahukars, Mahajans, etc. combine trading and other business with money lending. Vary in size from petty lenders to substantial shroffs Act as money changers and finance internal trade through hundis (internal bills of exchange) Indigenous banking is usually family owned business employing own working capital At one point it was estimated that IBs met about 90% of the financial requirements of rural India

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RBI and indigenous bankers (1) Methods employed by the indigenous bankers are traditional with vernacular system of accounting. RBI suggested that bankers give up their trading and commission business and switch over to the western system of accounting. It also suggested that these bankers should develop the deposit side of their business Ambiguous character of the hundi should stop Some of them should play the role of discount houses (buy and sell bills of exchange)

RBI and indigenous bankers (2) : 

RBI and indigenous bankers (2) IB should have their accounts audited by certified chartered accountants Submit their accounts to RBI periodically As against these obligations the RBI promised to provide them with privileges offered to commercial banks including Being entitled to borrow from and rediscount bills with RBI The IBs declined to accept the restrictions as well as compensation from the RBI Therefore, the IBs remain out of RBI’s purview

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Development Oriented Banking Historically, close association between banks and some traditional industries- cotton textiles in the west, jute textiles in the east Banking has not been mere acceptance of deposits and lending money; included development banking Lead Bank Scheme- opening bank offices in all important localities Providing credit for development of the district Mobilising savings in the district. ‘Service area approach’

Progress of banking in India (1) : 

Progress of banking in India (1) Nationalisation of banks in 1969: 14 banks were nationalised Branch expansion: Increased from 8260 in 1969 to 71177 in 2006 Population served per branch has come down from 64000 to 16000 A rural branch office serves 15 to 25 villages within a radius of 16 kms However, at present only 32,180 villages out of 5 lakh have been covered

Progress of banking in India (2) : 

Progress of banking in India (2) Deposit mobilisation: 1951-1971 (20 years)- 700% or 7 times 1971-1991 (20 years)- 3260% or 32.6 times 1991- 2006 (11 years)- 1100% or 11 times Expansion of bank credit: Growing at 20-30% p.a. thanks to rapid growth in industrial and agricultural output Development oriented banking: priority sector lending

Progress of banking in India (3) : 

Progress of banking in India (3) Diversification in banking: Banking has moved from deposit and lending to Merchant banking and underwriting Mutual funds Retail banking ATMs Internet banking Venture capital funds Factoring

Profitability of Banks(1) : 

Profitability of Banks(1) Reforms have shifted the focus of banks from being development oriented to being commercially viable Prior to reforms banks were not profitable and in fact made losses for the following reasons: Declining interest income Increasing cost of operations

Profitability of Banks (2) : 

Declining interest income was for the following reasons: High proportion of deposits impounded for CRR and SLR, earning relatively low interest rates System of directed lending Political interference- leading to huge NPAs Rising costs of operations for banks was because of several reasons: economic and political Profitability of Banks (2)

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As per the Narasimham Committee (1991) the reasons for rising costs of banks were: Uneconomic branch expansion Heavy recruitment of employees Growing indiscipline and inefficiency of staff due to trade union activities Low productivity Profitability of Banks (3)

Bank profitability: Suggestions : 

Bank profitability: Suggestions Some suggestions made by Narasimham Committee are: Set up an Asset Reconstruction Fund to take over doubtful debts SLR to be reduced to 25% of total deposits CRR to be reduced to 3 to 5% of total deposits Banks to get more freedom to set minimum lending rates Share of priority sector credit be reduced to 10% from 40%

Suggestions (cont’d) : 

Suggestions (cont’d) All concessional rates of interest should be removed Banks should go for new sources of funds such as Certificates of Deposits Branch expansion should be carried out strictly on commercial principles Diversification of banking activities Almost all suggestions of the Narasimham Committee have been accepted and implemented in a phased manner since the onset of Reforms

NPA Management : 

NPA Management The Narasimham Committee recommendations were made, among other things, to reduce the Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) of banks To tackle this the government enacted the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Act (SARFAESI) Act, 2002 Enabled banks to realise their dues without intervention of courts

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