THE CONFUSION ABOUT Bt BRINJAL : THE CONFUSION ABOUT Bt BRINJAL BY
PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA Past scenario : Past scenario Bengal famine in 1943—around 4 million people died in hunger of eastern India.
Green revolution made India self –sufficient of food grains by 1978 through the adoption of dwarf high yielding hybrid wheat & rice variety.
It was possible due to the use of genetically improved seeds (wheat- rht gene; rice- sd1 gene) Present scenario : Present scenario Farmland is decreasing..
Population is increasing in a very high rate.
Production is not increasing—stagnant.
Several problems came out in recent days.–
1) increased temperature
4) biotic stresses
Our crop is unable to cope up with these new stresses because they did not face such before.
That’s why traditional breeding is unsuccessful. Another worldwide famine is waiting for us.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! : Another worldwide famine is waiting for us.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! So we need a second green revolution.
The Process by which we can increase the yield of a particular crop.
For using genes from non rice sources we have to go for genetic engineering..
Even traditional breeding use the technology(genetic engineering) unknowingly. So in present scenario for a second green revolution we have to go for biotechnology & genetic engineering : So in present scenario for a second green revolution we have to go for biotechnology & genetic engineering BRINJAL CULTIVATION IN INDIA : BRINJAL CULTIVATION IN INDIA Major Problems : Major Problems FSB Damage : FSB Damage Slide 11: 50 - 90% of damage is caused by fruit and shoot borer Slide 12: Fruit borer
consumer Why we need Bt brinjal ?? : Why we need Bt brinjal ?? No natural resistance in germplasm
Limited success with traditional management strategies
Huge use of pesticides results in
development of resistance in insects
Harmful effects on environment, health of farmer and consumers
Bt brinjal has potential to provide economic and health benefits Slide 14: Speculation about Bt or Bt-Brinjal
is like…… The unscientific comments about Bt-Brinjal often reminds us of the six blind men and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan and the trunk as hose We should know the actual & true fact which is scientific……………. : We should know the actual & true fact which is scientific……………. What is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) : What is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) TMM Bt cotton EM view of a purified inclusion body EM view of Bt with spores and crystals Endospore Crystal Soil bacterium; ubiquitous
Different strains produce their own insecticide proteins.
The protein is called as cry protein for its crystal form.
Each cry protein selectively affects insects belonging to a particular order (eg.,Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, etc) at their very early larval stage History of safe use as a spray : History of safe use as a spray Since 1938, used extensively as a spray all over the world to control a variety of lepidopteron pests and also mosquito larvae. TMM Bt cotton IN INDIA IN THAILAND IN CALIFORNIA IN INDIA IN AUSTRALIA Global market for biopesticides, 2005-06 - $260m : Global market for biopesticides, 2005-06 - $260m TMM Bt cotton 62% Other bacteria
$32m Source: CPL Business Consultants, July 2006 Bt spray dominated with 62%. Used in all countries, including the European Union (16.5%), and by all farmers including organic farmers How bt brinjal developed? : How bt brinjal developed? Bt brinjal is a genetically improved brinjal developed by inserting a cry1Ac gene into brinjal genome
The Cry1Ac protein gives the brinjal plant in-built resistance against lepidopteran insects like Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer
Use of Bt as insecticide not new – farmers using it for over 50 years as a spray Slide 20: PLR1 Non-Bt Bt Shoot Damage : Shoot Damage Non Bt Bt Fruit damage : Fruit damage Non bt brinjal Bt brinjal Slide 23: Bt-Cotton Approved 26 March 2002: A Landmark in India India’s first transgenic crop Slide 24: Bt Cotton Bt-cotton area & cotton production in India 620 Bt-cotton hybrids & 1 Bt variety have been released so far New Hybrids Bt Cotton area lakh ha Slide 25: India: Raw Cotton Imports and Exports 1991-2009 Slide 26: Insecticide usage in India IRM Bt Cotton Bollworm insecticides Rs 600 crores in 2002 Bollworm Insecticides Rs 260 crores in 2008 NET RESULT OF BT COTTON APPROVAL : NET RESULT OF BT COTTON APPROVAL INDIA WAS AN IMPORTER OF COTTON BEFORE BT COTTON DEVELOPED……………..NOW INDIA IS AN EXPORTER.
INDIA IS NOW THE SECOND LARGEST COTTON PRODUCER IN THE WORLD
THE NET INCOME DERIVED BY BT FARMERS WAS RS.26,406 (US$600.13)/HA WHILE IT WAS RS.9,059 (US$205.88)/HA FOR THE NON-BT FARMERS.
NET GAIN IN BT COTTON CULTIVATION IS Rs. 4000 CRORES IN INDIA ABOUT SAFETY OF BT BRINJAL : ABOUT SAFETY OF BT BRINJAL The controversy began
Questioned the safety of Bt Slide 29: Ingestion (occurs while feeding plant tissues)
Activation (pH >9.5)
Binding (Specific receptor)
Insertion (Damage gut wall)
D e a t h Selective action of Bt in insects How cry proteins act in the insect gut : How cry proteins act in the insect gut Fig. 3 Taken from de Maagd RA (2001) Trends in Genetics 17(4), 193-199 Details mode of action of bt protein : Details mode of action of bt protein Bt has no toxic impact in higher animals (HUMAN) because of….. : Bt has no toxic impact in higher animals (HUMAN) because of….. Acidic stomach
Very low pH (∽1.5 in humans)
Absence of required receptors Bt is safe to non-target organisms-HUMAN National regulatory systems in India : National regulatory systems in India Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF)
Department of Biotechnology (DBT)
There are six competent authorities to handle various issues viz.,
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC)
Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM)
Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC)
Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC)
State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC)
District Level Committee (DLC) What are the safety concerns? : What are the safety concerns? Toxicity
Out-crossing / Gene flow
Effects on non-target organisms
Pest resistance All safety issues were addressed
before regulatory approval was given Safety to non-target organisms : Safety to non-target organisms Feed safety studies were conducted using high dose of Bt-cotton seed-meal / protein on: Fish
Mammals - goats, buffaloes, cows, rabbits
Biological control agents
(Lacewing, Ladybird beetles etc) Results revealed no ill effects & Bt is safe ! DOES IT AFFECT BIODIVERSITY?? : DOES IT AFFECT BIODIVERSITY?? Any new gene incorporation in a genome increases its genetic diversity.
In nature, every evolution of a new species is due to some gene incorporation through cross pollination..
The idea that Bt brinjal will destroy biodiversity is nonsensical. In fact, since brinjal has no natural resistance (to pests), the introduction of Bt brinjal will help increase genetic diversity. IS IT A THREAT TO OTHER VARIETIES THROUGH CROSS POLLINATION?? : IS IT A THREAT TO OTHER VARIETIES THROUGH CROSS POLLINATION?? Gene transfer is not an easy phenomenon. It has to be fixed in population through selection pressure. Also, there is no horizontal transfer of the gene — it will not transfer to animals; there is only vertical transfer — from one generation to the next within the same species. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BT-BRINJAL.? : WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BT-BRINJAL.? Benefits to consumers and society:
1) Consumers will have a choice to buy non-infested, undamaged and good quality brinjal fruits.
2) High levels of pesticide residues are present in a large number of vegetables that we eat daily. Bt brinjal will offer consumers fruits with almost no or significantly reduced level of pesticide residues, well within the prescribed MRL.
3) It is expected that Bt brinjal may improve marketable yield manifold resulting in availability of more brinjal in the market at affordable price. Krishna and Qaim (2007) predicted a 15% decrease in market price of brinjal at maximum technology adoption.
4) The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) showed that Bt brinjal would help stabilize the market price (IIHR, 2008). Benefits to farmers : Benefits to farmers Farmers are expected to benefit at multiple levels. Some of these include:
1) Considerable reduction in cost of production by saving on cost of insecticides and lower labor cost as a result of reduced spraying.
2) Manifold increase in yield per unit area by saving fruits from damage caused by FSB.
3) Significant improvement in marketable fruits thereby increasing income per unit area.
4) Reduction in direct exposure to insecticides leading to lesser health problems. Benefits to ecology and environment : Benefits to ecology and environment 1) Reduction in pesticide residues in soil and water in brinjal fields.
2) Lesser pollution of air and local environment due to decreased use of insecticides.
3) Protection of naturally occurring predators and parasitoids and other beneficial organisms due to reduced use of insecticides.
4) Reduction in soil and ground-water contamination.
5) Safeguarding soil microflora and invertebrates from damage caused by unintended and excessive use of insecticides. NOW SOME PEOPLE has CHOOSEN A NEW PROFESSION------------ PROTESTING : Protesting is their ROTI,, KAPRA aur MAKAN..
That’s why every morning they arise question on a new issue……………. NOW SOME PEOPLE has CHOOSEN A NEW PROFESSION------------ PROTESTING Strange!! : Strange!! The opponents seem to suggest that Bt-Brinjal kills everything else except FSB – the target pests!!.....
like the blind people.. Smt . Pratibha Debisingh Patil, the president of india : Smt . Pratibha Debisingh Patil, the president of india “Efforts towards sustainable agriculture can be greatly augmented with the help of space technology and biotechnology advances” Dr. Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India : Dr. Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India “We need to use the potential of biotechnology to meet the requirements of hungry people”. Mr. P. Chidambaram, the union home minister : Mr. P. Chidambaram, the union home minister “Bt cotton has made India a cotton exporting country. We thought of ourselves as exporters of wheat and rice, but today we import wheat. No country as large as India can survive on imports for its food needs,”….”….”The success achieved in cotton must be used to make the country self sufficient in rice, wheat, pulse and oil seed production”. Slide 49: The scientists & students should come together and speak in one voice.
Defend the technology –
Silence is not gold. Silencing is! Thank youhave a nice day : Thank youhave a nice day