Brucellosis ppt.ppt Dr.nevkar

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Occurance : 

Occurance Cattle,Buffaloes Camels Horses sheep Goat Swine Deer Fox Hare & Rodents Zoonotic Human Occurance in all over world

BRUCELLOOSIS Dr.Nevkar Suresh Gangadhar.M.V.Sc Schollar 2010 M 14Animal Reproduction : 

BRUCELLOOSIS Dr.Nevkar Suresh Gangadhar.M.V.Sc Schollar 2010 M 14Animal Reproduction

Brucella abortus . Brucella meletensis Brucella suis Brucella ovis Brucella canis Brucella neotamae six majour species

Brucella organism : 

Brucella organism Gram Negative coco bacillia INTRA CELLULAR BACTERIAL ORGANISM

Brucella spp. : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Brucella spp. SENATIVE TO DIRECT SUNLIGHT DISINFECTANT & PASTEURIZATION. IN DRYCONDITION SURVIE IFEMBEDDEDIN PROTEIN INTAP WATER SEVARAL MONTHS AT 4TO 8 DEGREE TEMP. & 2.5 YEARS AT 0 DEGREE & SEVERAL YEARS IN FROZON TISSUE OR MEDIUM DAMP SOIL 60 DAYS & UPTO 144 DAYS AT 20 DEGREE &40 % HUMIDITY 30 DAYS IN URIN ,SEVERAL DAYS IN FAECES,SLURRY & LIQUID MANURE .

IMPORTANCE : 

IMPORTANCE BRUCELLA IS ZOONOTIC DISEASE HEAVY ECONOMIC LOSSES WIDELY SPREAD IN ALL OVER WORLD

PATHOGENESIS : 

PATHOGENESIS INFECTION BY INGESTION OF CONTAMINATED PASTURE FEED WATEr BY GENITAL DISCHARGE LICKING OF ABOERTED CALF MILK OF ABORTED COW THROUGH INFECTD BULL SEMEN BY A.I.NOT N.S. LOCALISATION OF ORGANISM IN supramamary LYMPH NODE & udder IF ANIMAL IS NOT PREGNONT SEROLOGICAL TEST NEGATIVE PREGNONT COW PRODUCTION OF ERITHRITOL IN PLACENTA FAVERS BACTERIAL GROWTH MULTIPLICATIN IN GENITAL ORGANS.

Slide 11: 

ABORTION AFTER FIFTH MONTH OF PREGNONCY RETAINTION OF PLACENTA & EXCRETION OF ORGANISM IN LOCHIAL DISCHARGE FOR 2 TO 3 WEEKS CAUSES ACUTE OR CHRONIC METRITIS ABORTED FIRST CALF MAY BE WEAK , DEAD OR MAY DIED SHORTLY IF SERVIE 5% calf remain carrier of infection till pregnoncy. Incubation period is VARIABLE

Slide 12: 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Sir David Bruce (1855-1931) British Army physician and microbiologist Discovered Micrococcus melitensis Professor FEG Cox. The Wellcome Trust, Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases

The Many Names of Brucellosis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 The Many Names of Brucellosis Human Disease Malta Fever Undulant Fever Mediterranean Fever Rock Fever of Gibraltar Gastric Fever Animal Disease Bang’s Disease Enzootic Abortion Epizootic Abortion Slinking of Calves Ram Epididymitis Contagious Abortion

Slide 14: 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008

Slide 15: 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008

B. abortus : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 B. abortus Worldwide Some countries have eradicated it Notifiable diseasein many countries Poor surveillance and reporting due to lack of recognition Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO)

B. melitensis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 B. melitensis Latin America, Middle East, Mediterranean, eastern Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa Accounts for most human cases In the Mediterranean and Middle East Up to 78 cases/100,000 people/year Arabic Peninsula 20% seroprevalence Recent emergence in cattle on Middle Eastern intensive dairy farms

B. suis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 B. suis Low Levels United States and Australia Persistent problem in feral swine Biovar 1 Established in cattle in Brazil and Columbia Biovar 2 Enzootic in wild hares in Europe

B. suis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 B. suis Biovars 1 and 3 Worldwide problems where swine are raised Free United Kingdom, Canada Eradicated Holland, Denmark Low Incidence Middle East, North Africa

B. canis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 B. canis Poorly understood 1-19% prevalence in United States Rarely causes disease in humans

Who is at Risk? : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Who is at Risk? Occupational Disease Cattle ranchers/dairy farmers Veterinarians Abattoir workers Meat inspectors Lab workers Hunters Travelers Consumers of unpasteurized dairy products

Human Disease : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Human Disease Can affect any organ or organ system All patients have a cyclical fever Variability in clinical signs Headache, weakness, arthralgia, depression, weight loss, fatigue, liver dysfunction

Human Disease : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Human Disease Congenitally infected infants Low birth weight Failure to thrive Jaundice Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly Respiratory difficulty General signs of sepsis (fever, vomiting) Asymptomatic

Human Disease : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Human Disease Neurological Depression, mental fatigue Cardiovascular Endocarditis resulting in death Chronic brucellosis is hard to define Length, type and response to treatment variable Localized infection Blood donations of infected persons should not be accepted

Diagnosis in Humans : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Diagnosis in Humans Isolation of organism Blood, bone marrow, other tissues Serum agglutination test Four-fold or greater rise in titer Samples 2 weeks apart Immunofluorescence Organism in clinical specimens PCR

Human Disease : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Human Disease 20-60% of cases Osteoarticular complications Arthritis, spondylitis, osteomyelitis Hepatomegaly may occur Gastrointestinal complications 2-20% of cases Genitourinary involvement Orchitis and epididymitis most common

Transmission to Humans : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Transmission to Humans Conjunctiva or broken skin contacting infected tissues Blood, urine, vaginal discharges, aborted fetuses, placentas Ingestion Raw milk & unpasteurized dairy products Rarely through undercooked meat

Treatment of Choice : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Treatment of Choice Combination therapy has the best efficacy Doxycycline for six weeks in combination with streptomycin for 2-3 weeks or rifampin for 6 weeks CNS cases treat 6-9 months Same for endocarditis cases plus surgical replacement of valves

Treatment of Choice : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Treatment of Choice Combination therapy has the best efficacy Doxycycline for six weeks in combination with streptomycin for 2-3 weeks or rifampin for 6 weeks CNS cases treat 6-9 months Same for endocarditis cases plus surgical replacement of valves

Brucella organism : 

Brucella organism Gram Negative cocco bacillia

Treatment of Choice : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Treatment of Choice Combination therapy has the best efficacy Doxycycline for six weeks in combination with streptomycin for 2-3 weeks or rifampin for 6 weeks CNS cases treat 6-9 months Same for endocarditis cases plus surgical replacement of valves

Prognosis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Prognosis May last days, months, or years Recovery is common Disability is often pronounced About 5% of treated cases relapse Failure to complete the treatment regimen Sequestered infection requiring surgical drainage Case-fatality rate: <2% ( untreated) Endocarditis caused by B. melitensis

Human Disease : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Human Disease Congenitally infected infants Low birth weight Failure to thrive Jaundice Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly Respiratory difficulty General signs of sepsis (fever, vomiting) Asymptomatic

Transmission in Animals : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Transmission in Animals Ingestion of infected tissues or body fluids Contact with infected tissues or body fluids Mucous membranes, injections Venereal Swine, sheep, goats, dogs Fomites

Serum Agglutination Test. : 

Serum Agglutination Test.

Clinical Signs: Cattle & Bison : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Clinical Signs: Cattle & Bison Third trimester abortions with B. abortus Retained placenta Once expelled will have a leathery appearance Endometritis Birth of dead or weak calves Respiratory distress and lung infections Low milk yield

Clinical Signs: Swine : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Clinical Signs: Swine B. suis Prolonged bacteremia Abortion, early or late gestation Fertility problems Sows temporary Boars, unilateral or bilateral orchitis Lameness, posterior paralysis, spondylitis, metritis, abscesses

Clinical Signs: Sheep & Goats : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Clinical Signs: Sheep & Goats B. melitensis causes late term abortions Retained placenta Birth of dead or weak lambs/kids Goats - articular and periarticular hygroma localizations B. ovis causes abortions, fertility problems Orchitis, epididymitis Abnormal breeding soundness exam Organisms present in semen

Clinical Signs: Dogs : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Clinical Signs: Dogs Susceptible to B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis B. canis causes abortions Last trimester of pregnancy Prolonged vaginal discharge Bacteremia Failure to conceive, stillbirths, prostatitis, epididymitis

Diagnosis in Animals : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Diagnosis in Animals Isolation of organism Blood, semen, other tissues Serology Brucellosis card test, ELISA Brucella milk ring test Demonstration by fluorescent antibody of organism in clinical specimen Placenta, fetus

Prognosis : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Prognosis Disease may last days, months,or years Eradication program in the United States often leads to slaughter of certain species Cattle, bison, horses, sheep, goats, swine

Prevention and Control : 

Prevention and Control

Prevention and Control : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Prevention and Control Education about risk of transmission Farmer, veterinarian, abattoir worker, butcher, consumer, hunter, public Wear proper attire if dealing with infected animals/ tissues Gloves, masks, goggles Avoid consumption of raw dairy products

Prevention and Control : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Prevention and Control Immunize in areas of high prevalence Young goats and sheep with Rev-1 Calves with RB51 No human vaccine Eradicate reservoir Identify, segregate, and/or cull infected animals

Acknowledgments : 

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 Acknowledgments Development of this presentationwas funded by grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division, and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University. Contributing Authors: Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Radford Davis, DVM, MPH, DACVPM;; Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD; Reviewers: James A. Roth, DVM, PhD; Stacy Holzbauer, DVM, MPH; Jean Gladon, BS, DVM; Katie Spaulding, BS; Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM

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