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These two perspectives are based on organizational problems. Problems of lower level managers (dealing with the everyday problems of workplace) this is known as Scientific Management. The problems of Top level managers of large Organizations. ( dealing with problem of managing the large org.)Classical & Behavioral Approach classical Behavioral: Classical & Behavioral Approach classical Behavioral More emphasizes on Production, productivity , efficiency as main objectives of the management. Identification & Development of methodology & practices of management Methods of work Management & motivation Followed the Mechanistic approaches (Taylor, Feyol More emphasizes on The people/ workers & carried on many experiments at workplaces Human relations & behavior at work. Developed as a reaction to the overemphasis of classical theories on Rationality & efficiency. Followed Humanistic approach( Robert Owen, Follet , MeyoScientific : Scientific Scientific Management practices introduced by Fredrick W.Taylor . Scientific management meant the application of logical & systematic techniques to work processes. Scientific management concentrated the key word to harmony was…Aims of scientific management: Aims of scientific management Discover the one best way to do a job. Scientific selection & training of workers for the new methods of work Linking of the financial incentives Increase in employees productivity through systematic scientific analysis of his work.Scientific Aspects of Scientific Management: Scientific Aspects of Scientific Management Scientific management is a Science & Not Rule of Thumb Scientific analysis for determining the Standard Time & Standard Methods for doing the work, task, job with maximum efficiency Developing the each man to his greatest efficiency Cooperation & HarmonyBehavioral: Behavioral A management approach that emphasizes people and how the structure of an organization affects their behavior and performance. Behavioral approach to management developed partly because it was observed that following the ideas of classical approach did not achieve total efficiency and work place harmony.Branches of behavioral school: Branches of behavioral school Two branches Human relation Behavioral sciencesHuman Relation Approach: Human Relation Approach The manner in which managers interact with subordinates. Became very popular in the 1950s To develop good human relations, - the followers must know subordinates behavior, and the psychological & social factors affects them .Human behavior school: Human behavior school This school emphasizes heavily on application of social sciences to study management on three levels- Individual Group Organization relationship at work situations. This school tend to treat all group activities as manages & deals with motivation, group dynamics, individual and group relation etc…Behavioral Science Approach: Behavioral Science Approach A field of study or discipline concerned with scientific investigation, analysis and understanding of human behavioral. Braches of BS Psychology Sociology AnthropologyMeaning : Meaning Psychology - Study of individual human Behaviour Sociology - Study of human behaviour in groups Anthropology - Study of physical, biological and cultural influences on HB as a member of groups. The behaviour sciences form part of social sciencesThe tern implies: The tern implies BSA seeks to promote understanding of organizational behaviour in a systematic, objective and scientific manner. It believes in development of practical propositions about behavior of humans in organizational situations by understanding scientific, empirical research studies. There is no rumor of imaginary and emotional conclusions.Management Science Approach: Management Science Approach Modern version Key feature is the use of mathematics and statistics to aid in resolving production and operation problem. The approach focuses on solving technical rather than human behavior problems. The computer has tremendous value to this approach. MSA began early part of World War II Operation research team.Operation research approach : Operation research approach Operation research approach has been formalized and renamed the Management science approach It involves mixed team of specialist. Team members analyses the problem and develop a mathematical representation of it. The results are often useful in making final decision. The imp. purpose is to provide management with quantitative bases for decisions.Contribution of Management science Approach: Contribution of Management science Approach In the areas of production management – Manufacturing technology Flow of material in a manufacturing Contributed a techniques that help to solve - Production scheduling problems Budgeting problems Maintenance of optimal inventory levelsSystem Approach: System Approach A way to think about organizations and management problems; View an organization as integrated parts with unified purpose; Surviving and thriving in the environment Focuses on efficiency and effectiveness in each part of the organization Views the elements of an originations are interconnected. It also views the organization as linked to its environment.Types of systems : Types of systems Open system – An organization that interacts with its environment and uses the feedback received to make changes and modification. Closed system – An approach that generally ignores environmental forces and condition.Open system : Open system e.g., Dell computer INPUTS Transformation OUTPUT FEEDBACKDell computer as active interaction: Dell computer as active interaction Dell both obtain inputs from and provides resources to its environment. Financial resources are input needed to build manufacturing, R&D efforts , no, of expenses, Dell obtain from environment. Raw material, computer production technology obtain from environment (research journal, computer conferences other contacts)Transformation: Transformation Inputs are employed, used, coordinated and managed in a Transformation processes that produces Output Output – personal and business computer Task not completed Dell provides this resources to the environment Feedback – An elements that enables the communicator to determine whether a message has been received and whether it has produced the intended message. Positive feedback (people by the dell com.) Negative feedback (no sale)Closed System: Closed System An approach that generally ignores environmental forces and conditions. The closed system organizations pays little attention to the environment No active interaction with the outside world. E.g. Catholic Monastery.CONTIGENCY APPROACH : CONTIGENCY APPROACH Contingency approach is rather a new approach to management which uses all schools of thought to get best solution out of the situation. There is no single best solution to any problem and the solutions varies in different conditions / factors .Success of the manager depends on three characteristics : Success of the manager depends on three characteristics 1 . Task : whether the task to be accomplished is structured or unstructured 2 . Relationship : Whether the manager has good or poor relationship with people related to that task highly affects the results. 3. Power of Authority : Whether the manage has strong weak power of authority affects his decision making .Slide 25: The effective manager uses three characteristic in best practical combination for the situation . The development of contingency approach gives emphasis to situation and environment in which the task has to be accomplished by using various schools of management appropriately.Slide 26: The effective manager uses three characteristic in best practical combination for the situation . The development of contingency approach gives emphasis to situation and environment in which the task has to be accomplished by using various schools of management appropriately.Comparison of Taylor and Feyol’s contribution: Comparison of Taylor and Feyol’s contribution Taylor Concern with tasks, workers & supervisors Greater attention to standardization of work methods & tools. Concern was to increase the efficiency of workers & managers. Use the expressions “Scientific Management” FEYOL Concern with effectiveness of administrators or managers. More emphasis on the principles of general mgmt and the functions of manager Concern to develop principles which will help in better management. Use a general theory of administration.Comparison: Comparison Taylor starts works at lowest level then moved upwards while formulating his scientific mgmt to improve the productivity of workers and eliminate all kinds of waste . Tailor had a narrow perspective Feyol began from top level and proceeded downward with emphasis on unity of direction, unity of command and coordination . Feyol had a wider perspective.comparison: comparison The work of Taylor and Feyol was essentially complementary. Both of them applied scientific methods to the problems. Scientific management offer several benefits to the employers, workers & also society.Evaluation & contribution of F.W.Taylor: Evaluation & contribution of F.W.Taylor Time & motion study Scientific recruitment, selection & training of workers Separation of planning from doing of the job/work Functional Foreman ship Standardization of work Development of payment of financial incentives Effective reorganization of supervision & managerial system.Criticism & limitation of scientific management: Criticism & limitation of scientific management Problems of application Tools and techniques of scientific mgmt are imperfect. It depends on heavily on complete harmony & cooperation between workers & employers . Standardization and quantification of coordination is highly impossible. It creates frustration and stress.Criticism and limitations: Criticism and limitations Apathetic attitude towards higher management level. Workers grievances for harshness, exploitation, etc… Employers complaints for expensive & less organized system of mgmt and supervision Psychological problemsFeyol’s contribution: Feyol’s contribution Henri Feyol was a French mining engineer, and a successful chief executive with a long experience in the field of general administration and management. Feyol tried to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework and general theory of organization and administration based on his rich experience. He conceptualized what constitutes the managerial job in practical terms.continued: continued He wrote, ‘to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate, and to control.’ This was the way in which he had given the famous 14 principles of general management Feyol’s framework as an accurate description of managerial job. These principles are as follows.Evaluation & comments on Feyol’s principles: Evaluation & comments on Feyol’s principles Division of Labour : Depending on specialization (Adam Smith’s) Authority and Responsibility : By virtue of position Discipline : Code of conduct, rules, regulations Unity of Command : one boss – one subordinate Unity of Direction : one boss – one subordinate/ one set of operations/ group Subordination of individual interests to general interests : In case of conflict between individuals, importance should be given to organization’s goals i.e. individual goals should not supersede the organizational goalsContinued…: Continued… 7 Remuneration : fair system of remuneration- equal pay for equal work 8 Centralization : declining role of subordinates in decision making i.e. workers’ participation in management 9 Scalar Chain : line of from top level to bottom level i.e. hierarchy of authority 10 Order : Place for everything and everything in its place 11 Equity : management should be fair to subordinates, who in turn, should be loyal to their bosses 12 Stability of Tenure : managers and workers should be committed to their organizations and work at the same place for longer period. There should be less labour turnover 13 Initiative : everyone should be allowed to think new ways of doing things 14 Esprit de corps : ‘Unity is strength’. Entire workforce should work as a team to get the benefits of synergyCriticism of Fayol’s Principles: Criticism of Fayol’s Principles It is too formal – the management is a very complex and also complicated process. The critics claim that the such theory never found in practice. the theory to be highly formal. Fayol has not paid any adequate attention to the workers. Fayol has taken only broader view of the management as a process & not concern like Taylor with aspect of inducing the individual workers to produce more. His theory does not have any positive attitude towards workers.Managerial skills : Managerial skills Conceptual skills Human relation skills Technical skills Administration skillsManagement skills (Factors): Management skills (Factors ) (the importance of management skills depends on following factors) Levels of management Task/duty/function/authority/responsibility /size &structure of organisation Individual Differences & people EnvironmentConceptual skills : Conceptual skills Also include Diagnostic skills These skills are regarded as mental abilities needed to acquired, analyze & interpret the information received from various sources & make the appropriate necessary decisions. This involves the ability to view the establishment as whole complete unity It deals with ideas & abstract analysis of relationships, elements & functions of the establish.Conceptual skills (includes Diagnostic skills ) : Conceptual skills (includes Diagnostic skills ) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.