students training and development

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What is Training?:

What is Training? Training – a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies Competencies – knowledge, skills or behavior critical for successful job performance The goal of training is for employees to: master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in training programs, and apply them to their day-to-day activities

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Knowledge :- It is an organized body of facts , principles , procedures, and information acquired overtime. Declarative Procedural Strategic Skills :- The capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience. A person’s skills are reflected by how well she is able to carry out specific actions, such as operating a piece of equipment, communicating effectively, or implementing a business strategy. There are two levels of skill acquisition :- Compilation Automaticity Attitudes :- Attitudes are employee beliefs and opinions that support or inhibit behavior.

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A competency is a set of knowledge , skills , and attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks. In the broadest sense, a job is broken down into a set of tasks, and the competencies required to perform the job are determined through an analysis of the of the tasks. A competency is more than just KSAs: it is the ability to integrate and use the KSAs to perform a task successfully. Example :- Carpentary

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TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION Training is a set of activities, whereas development is the desired outcome of those activities. Training is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs, development refers to the learning of KSAs. Education is typically differentiated from training and development by the types of KSAs developed , which are more general in nature. Training is typically focused on job specific KSAs, education focuses on more general KSAs related , not specifically tailored , to a person’s career or job.

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Training is to be used to gain a competitive advantage, company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. Intellectual capital includes :- Basic skills ( skills needed to perform one’s job). Advanced skills ( such as how to use technology to share information with other employees ). 3) An understanding of the customer or manufacturing system. 4) Self –motivated creativity.

High-Leverage Training :

High-Leverage Training Linked to strategic goals and objectives Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective Compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning

Continuous Learning (1 of 2):

Continuous Learning (1 of 2) Requires employees to understand the entire work system including the relationships among: their jobs their work units the entire company

Training and Performance :

Training and Performance Emphasis on high-leverage training has been accompanied by a movement to link training to performance improvement Training is used to improve employee performance This leads to improved business results

Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (1 of 2):

Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (1 of 2) Providing educational opportunities for all employees An on-going process of performance improvement that is directly measurable not one-time training events The need to demonstrate the benefits of training to executives, managers, and trainees

Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (2 of 2):

Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (2 of 2) Learning as a lifelong event senior management, training managers, and employees have ownership Training used to help attain strategic business objectives helps companies gain a competitive advantage

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EXAMPLE :- Medtronic is a good example of a company that uses high – leverage training. Medtronic is the world leader in medical technology , providing lifelong solutions for people with chronic heart and neurological diseases. Medtronic engages employees in learning and development , which links them to the company mission of restoring many people to full and productive lives and of making sure that products are available to patients who need them. In the Medtronic Asia/ Pacific location, for example , a developing managers’ programme placed more emphasis on cultural awareness because the managers were from many different locations and backgrounds.

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The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. Step1 is to conducted a needs assessment, which is necessary to identify whether training is needed. Step 2 is to ensure that employees have the motivation and basic skills necessary to master training content. Step 3 is to create the learning environment that has the features necessary for learning to occur. Step 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the training content to their jobs. Step 5 is to develop an evaluation plan. Step 6 is to choose the training method based on the learning objectives and learning environment. Step 7 is to evaluate the program and make changes in it .

Training Design Process :

Training Design Process

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The training design process is based on principles of Instructional System Design . ISD refers to a process for designing and developing training programs. The training design process sometimes is referred to as the ADDIE model because it includes :- Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation

Instructional System Design (ISD):

Instructional System Design (ISD) Refers to a process for designing and developing training programs There is not one universally accepted ISD model ISD process should be: systematic flexible enough to adapt to business needs

Assumptions of ISD Approaches (2 of 2):

Assumptions of ISD Approaches (2 of 2) Evaluation plays an important part in: planning and choosing a training method monitoring the training program suggesting changes to the training design process

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EXAMPLE :- The development of a Web – based training program focusing on teaching managers skills needed to run effective business meetings provides a good example of use of the instructional design process.

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (1 of 2):

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (1 of 2) Globalization offshoring Need for leadership Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital focus on link to business strategy Attracting and retaining talent Customer service and quality emphasis

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (2 of 2) :

Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (2 of 2) Changing demographics and diversity of the work force New technology High-performance models of work systems Economic changes

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GLOBALIZATION :- It has affected not just businesses with international operations. Companies without international operations may buy or use goods that have been produced overseas, hire employees with diverse backgrounds, or compete with foreign – owned companies operating within the US. Globalization is not limited to a particular sector of the economy or product market. Example :- Procter and Gamble Starbucks in China New managers were sent to Tacoma , Washington, to learn the corporate culture as well as the secrets of brewing flavorful coffee. Globalization also means That U.S companies may move job overseas: offshoring refers to the process of moving jobs from the United States to other locations in the world. In contrast to the computer and printer manufacturer Hewlett – Packard which hired its foreign workers 20 years after its founding in 1939, search engine Google employed people outside the US just 3 years after its 1998 start.

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THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP The aging of the workforce and globalization mean that companies will need to identify , train , and develop employees with managerial talent. Executive , administrative, and managerial occupations will experience the greatest turnover due to death or retirement. Companies need to both identify employees with managerial talent and help potential new managers develop the skills needed to succeed. Example :- Management development programs of IKEA, The Swedish – based home furnishing retailer that has its US headquarters in Pennsylvania. Job – Rotation Self – paced , e-learning programme The Next Generation Store Manager Program

Intangible Assets:

Intangible Assets Cannot be touched and are nonmonetary, however equally as valuable as financial and physical assets. They include: human capital customer capital social capital intellectual capital

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The intangible assets consist of human capital, customer capital, social capital and intellectual capital. Human capital refers to the sum of the attributes, life experience , knowledge, inventiveness, energy and enthusiasm that the company’s employees invest in their work. Intellectual capital refers to the codified knowledge that exists in a company. Social capital refers to relationships in the company. Customer capital refers to the value of relationships with persons or other organizations outside the company for accomplishing the goals of the company. Training and development has a direct influence on human and social capital because it affects education, work related know- how and competence , and work relationships. Training and development can have an indirect influence on customer and intellectual capital by helping employees better serve customers and by providing them with the knowledge needed to create patents and intellectual property.

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Intangible assets also contribute to a company’s competitive advantage because they are difficult to duplicate or imitate. Example :- South west airlines Buckman Laboratories is known for its knowledge management practices . It develops and markets specialty chemicals. The company rewards innovation and knowledge creation and exchange by including the sales of new products as part of employees performance evaluations. Buckman also changed the focus of the company’s information systems department , Renaming it knowledge transfer department to better match the service it is supposed to provide.

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HUMAN CAPITAL Tacit Knowledge Education Work related know how Work related competence CUSTOMER CAPITAL Customer relationships Brands Customer Loyalty Distribution Channels Social Capital Corporate culture Management philosophy Management practices Informal networking systems Coaching / mentoring relationships

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INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Patents Copyrights Trade secrets Intellectual property.

Increasing Intangible Assets:

Increasing Intangible Assets Increase human capital by focusing on attracting, developing, and retaining knowledge workers A management style of developing and empowering employees Capability to adapt to change Learning organization – embraces a culture of lifelong learning, enabling all employees to continually acquire and share knowledge

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FOCUS ON LINK TO BUSINESS STRATEGY As the importance of intangible assets and human capital are increasing, managers are beginning to see a more important role for training and development As a means to support a company’s business strategy, that is , its plans for meeting broad goals such as profitability , market share , and quality. Example :- A good example of how a company has linked training and development to business strategy is IBM. IBM has adopted an on – demand business strategy that requires the company to more quickly respond to customers needs and help them do the same for their clients.

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ATTRACTING AND RETAINING TALENT :- Between 2004 and 2014 , employment is expected to increase by 18.9 million , or 13 percent: ; new workers will be needed due to replacement. It is also important for companies to try to capture the valuable knowledge that is Leaving. Example :- NASA Engineers are designated as NASA Discipline Experts. Retention is an important part of talent management . Talented employees are looking for growth band a career path. Training and development is a key to attract and retain talented employees.

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CUSTOMER SERVICE AND QUALITY EMPHASIS Companies customers judge quality and performance. As a result , customer excellence requires attention to product and service features as well as to interactions with customers. Customer driven excellence includes understanding what customers wants and anticipating future needs. Customer – driven excellence includes reducing defects and errors , meeting specifications and reducing complaints. How the company recovers from defects and errors is also important for retaining and attracting customers. For that you need training to happen. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a company wide effort to continuously improve the ways people , machines and systems accomplish work.

Core Values of Total Quality Management (TQM) (1 of 2):

Core Values of Total Quality Management (TQM) (1 of 2) Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers Every employee in the company receives training in quality Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring, rather than being detected and corrected

Core Values of TQM (2 of 2):

Core Values of TQM (2 of 2) The company promotes cooperation with vendors, suppliers, and customers to improve quality and hold down costs Managers measure progress with feedback based on data

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The emphasis on quality is seen in the establishment of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and the ISO 9000:2000 quality standards. The Baldrige award, created by public law, is the highest level of national recognition for quality that a U.S. company can receive. To become eligible for the Baldrige, a company must complete a detailed application that consists of basic information about the firm as well as an in depth presentation of how it addresses specific criteria related to quality improvement.

Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination :

Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination Leadership 120 points Measurement Analysis and Knowledge Management 90 points Strategic Planning 85 points Human Resource Focus 85 points Process Management 85 points Business Results 450 points Customer and Market Focus 85 points Total Points 1,000 points

ISO 9000:2000 quality standards:

ISO 9000:2000 quality standards The ISO 9000:2000 standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Geneva, Switzerland ISO 9000 is the name of a family of standards ISO 9001 ISO 9004

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ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive standards because it covers product or service design and development, manufacturing , installation , and customer service. It includes the actual specification for a quality management system. ISO 9004 provides a guide for companies that want to improve. Example :- ISBN – International standard book number. A group within the ISO has drafted a standard for employee training. ISO 10015 Is a quality management tool designed to ensure that training is linked to company needs and performance. ISO 10015 has two key features. Companies have to determine the return on investment of training to company performance. 2. ISO 10015 requires companies to use appropriate design and effective learning processes.

Six Sigma process:

Six Sigma process The six sigma process refers to: measuring processes analyzing processes improving processes controlling processes

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Example :- GE is to have less than 4 defects per million in every element of every process GE businesses perform. Training is an important component of the process. Six sigma involves highly trained employees known as Champions, Master Black Belts, Black belts , and Green Belts who lead and teach teams that are focusing on ever – growing number of quality projects. Today GE has over 100,000 employees trained in Six Sigma Since 1996, when the Six Sigma quality initiative was started, it has produced more than 2 billion in benefits for GE. The first companies to achieve ISO 10015 certification are in CHINA and Switzerland.

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CHANGING DEMOGRAHICS AND DIVERSITY OF THE WORKFORCE Population is the single most important factor in determing the size and composition of the labor force, which is composed of people who are either working or looking for work. The work force will be older and more culturally diverse than at any time in the past 40 years. The civilian labor force is projected to increase by 14.7 million b/w 2004 and 2014, reaching 162.1 million by 2014. By 2014 the work force is projected to be 80% white, 12% African American, 8% Asian and other ethnic or cultural groups. 16% of the labor force will be of Hispanic origin. The Asian and Hispanic labor force increases due to immigration trends and higher than average birth rates. The training programs to help immigrants acquire the technical and customer service skills required in a service economy.

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Training plays a key role in ensuring that employees accept and work more effectively with each other. To successfully manage a diverse work force, managers and employees must be trained in a new set of skills. Example :- Marriott recognizes that most employees don’t want to stay in an entry level job such as house keeping . So Marriott trains employees to handle wide variety of positions and rotates them periodically to new jobs. This gives employees opportunities to find the area in which they best like to work.

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (1 of 2):

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (1 of 2) Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds Coaching, training and developing employees of different ages, educational backgrounds, ethnicities, physical abilities, and races

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (2 of 2):

Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work Force: (2 of 2) Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender, ethnicity, or physical handicap Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be creative and innovative


NEW TECHNOLOGY Advances in sophisticated technology along with reduced costs for the technology are changing the delivery of training, making training more realistic and giving employees the opportunity to choose where and when they will work. New technologies allow training to occur at any time and any place. Technology also allows companies greater use of a contingent work force.

New Technology:

New Technology Internet has created a new business model: e-commerce Advantages of technology: reduced travel costs greater accessibility to training consistent delivery ability to access experts share learning creating a learning environment greater use of a contingent work force


HIGH PERFORMANCE MODELS OF WORK SYSTEMS Through technology, the information needed to improve customer service and product quality becomes more accessible to employees. This means that employees are expected to take more responsibility for satisfying the customer and determining how they perform their jobs. One of the most popular methods for increasing employee responsibility and control is work teams.

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EXAMPLE :- Kinko’s , the world’s leading supplier of document solutions and business services with 1,100 location in nine countries , has changed. Because Kinko’s stores are geographically dispersed , the company has had to struggle with costly training programs offered in multiple locations to prepare employees for new products and services. Kinko’s adopted a blended learning approach including internet instruction, job aids, Virtual classroom training and mentoring. Capital One , a financial service company , uses an audio learning program that allows employees to learn through their iPods at their convenience. The company has also developed a mobile audio learning channel. The channel supplements competency based programs, leadership and management Programmes.

High-Performance Models of Work Systems:

High-Performance Models of Work Systems Work teams – involve employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service Cross training – training employees in a wide range of skills so they can fill any of the roles needed to be performed on the team Virtual teams – separated teams relying almost exclusively on technology to interact and complete their projects

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Example :- Canon is using a procedure called concurrent engineering in which production engineers work together with designers. This procedure makes it easier for these workers to exchange ideas to improve a product or make it easier to manufacture. WHAT ROLE DOES TRAINING PLAY ? Employees need job specific knowledge and basic skills to work with the equipment created by the new technology. Technology is used to achieve product diversification and customization, employees must have the ability to listen and communicate with customers. Interpersonal skills, such as negotiation and conflict management, and problem solving skills are more important than physical strength , coordination, and fine – motor skills – previous job requirements for many manufacturing and service jobs. Example :- The learning and education department of PwC has 190 employees located in 70 offices in different cities. These employees work together on virtual teams that range in size from 5 to 50 people.

The 2004 ASTD Competency Model :

The 2004 ASTD Competency Model

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The model describes what it takes for an individual to be successful in the training and development field. The learning strategist determines how workplace learning can be best used to help meet the company’s business strategy. The business partner uses business and industry knowledge to create training that improves performance. The project manager plans , obtains , and monitors the effective delivery of learning and performance solutions to support the business. The professional specialist designs, develops , delivers , and evaluates learning and performance solutions to support the business. The training professionals spend most of their time in designing learning, delivering training, managing the learning function, and coaching , they do spend time in the other areas too. The foundation competencies include interpersonal competencies, business and management competencies, and personal competencies.

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TNA ( training needs analysis ) is a systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required. Need analysis occurs when actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected organizational performance (EOP). A TNA is important because it helps determine whether training can correct the performance problem. The TNA to ensure to provide the right training to the right people. To conduct a TNA first , there is a need to accomplish several Things:- Increase the chances that the time and money spent on training is spent wisely.

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2. Determine the benchmark for evaluation of training. 3. Increase the motivation of participants A TNA will provide a benchmark of the performance levels and KSAs that trainees possess prior to training. These benchmarks will let you compare performance before and after training. This will allow you to demonstrate the cost savings or value added as a result of training.

Analysis Phase:

Analysis Phase Input Process Output TRIGGER Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) < Expected Organizational Performance (EOP) Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP < AP And Causes of PD Non Training Needs Training Needs Resources Operational Analysis Expected Performance (EP) Person Analysis Actual Performance (AP) Organizational Analysis Objectives Environment

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – Part 1 of 2:

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – Part 1 of 2 YES Is it worth fixing? Performance Discrepancy YES KSA Deficiency Reward/ Punishment Incongruence Inadequate Feedback Obstacles in the System Choose Appropriate Remedy YES Change Contingencies YES Provide Proper Feedback YES Remove Obstacles YES

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – Part 2 of 2:

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – Part 2 of 2 Job Aid Training Practice Change the Job Transfer or Terminate Performance discrepancy is worth fixing AND is due to a KSA deficiency Choose Appropriate Remedy Change Contingencies Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 1 of 5:

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 1 of 5 1. Organizational Goals Objectives and Budget This source suggests where training emphasis should be placed. Maintain a quality standard of no more than one reject per thousand. Achieve a goal to become ISO certified and allow $ 90,000 for  this effort. Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs Examples 2. Labor Inventory This source helps HRD identify where training is needed because of retirement, turnover, age, etc. 30% of our truck drivers will retire over the next four years.

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 2 of 5:

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 2 of 5 3. Organizational Climate Indicators These “quality of working life” indicators at the organizational level provide indicators of organizational performance gap a. Labor-management data These indicators relate work participation or productivity and are useful in discrepancy analysis and in helping management set a value on the behaviors it wishes to improve through training Sources of Data Implications For Training Examples b. Grievances Items related to productivity are useful in determining performance deficiencies Seventy percent of grievances are related to behaviors of 6 supervisors c. Turnover d. Absenteeism High absences in clerical staff e. Suggestions f. Productivity

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 3 of 5:

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 3 of 5 g . Accidents Accident rate for line workers increasing h. Short-term sickness Line workers’ attitude toward teamwork is poor i. Attitude surveys Surveys are good for locating discrepancies between organizational expectations and perceived results

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 4 of 5:

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 4 of 5 4. Analysis of Efficiency Indices a. Cost of labor b. Quality of product c. Waste Can help document difference between actual performance and desired performance Labor costs have increased 8 percent in the last year Number of rejects has increased by 30% since the new batch of workers began Sources of Data Implications For Training Needs Examples Wasted steel has increased by 14% since the company began using part-time workers

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 5 of 5:

Recommended Data Sources for Locating Gaps in Performance – Part 5 of 5 5. Change in system New or change equipment The line has been shut or subsystem may require training down about once per day since the new machinery was installed. 6. Management Requests One of the most common Production managers Or Management techniques of identification indicates a drop in quality Interrogation of performance since the layoffs discrepancies 7. MBO or Work Planning Provides actual baseline performance data on a and Review systems continuous basis. From these measures the company is able to determine improvement or deterioration or performance

Introduction (1 of 2):

Introduction (1 of 2) Effective training practices involve the use of an instructional systems design process The instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment

Introduction (2 of 2):

Introduction (2 of 2) Before choosing a training method, it is important to determine: what type of training is necessary, and whether trainees are willing to learn

Needs Assessment (1 of 2):

Needs Assessment (1 of 2) Process used to determine whether training is necessary. Needs assessment involves: Organizational analysis - involves determining the appropriateness of training, given the business strategy determining the resources available for training determining the support by managers and peers for training

Needs Assessment (2 of 2):

Needs Assessment (2 of 2) Person analysis – involves: determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem identifying who needs training determining employees’ readiness for training Task analysis – involves: identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks

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CAUSES AND OUTCOMES OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT Organizational analysis Task Analysis Person analysis Reasons for pressure points Lack of basic skills Poor performance New technology Customer requests New products Higher performance Standards New jobs Out comes What trainees need to learn Who receives training Type of training Frequency of training Buy versus build training decisions Training versus other HR options How training should be evaluated. Who needs Training?

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Example :- A delivery truck driver whose job is to deliver anesthetic gases to medical facilities. The driver mistakenly hooks up the supply line of a mild anesthetic to the supply line of a hospital’s oxygen system , contaminating the hospital’s oxygen system, Why did the driver make this mistake, which is clearly a performance problem.

Key Concerns of Upper- and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment:

Key Concerns of Upper- and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment Upper-Level Managers Midlevel Managers Trainers Organizational Analysis Is training important to achieve our business objectives? How does training support our business strategy? Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? Person Analysis What functions or business units need training? Who should be trained? Managers? Professionals? Core employees? How will I identify which employees need training? Task Analysis Does the company have the people with the knowledge, skills, and ability needed to compete in the marketplace? For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service? What tasks should be trained? What knowledge, skills, ability, or other characteristics are necessary?

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SMES are employees , academics, managers, technical experts, trainers , and even customers or suppliers who are knowledgeable in regard to :- Training issues including tasks to be performed. Knowledge, skills , and abilities required for successful task performance. Necessary equipments Conditions under which the tasks have to be performed. Example :- Netg, an Illinois company that develops courseware for training information technology skills, uses academics or trainers who are familiar with course content. Example :- Texas Instrument was trying to determine how to train engineering experts to become trainers for new engineers. Example :- Another source of information for companies that have introduced A new technology is the help desk that companies often set up to deal with calls regarding problems, deficiencies in training, or deficiencies in documentation , software or systems. Example :- For the newly created jobs, trainers often do not have job incumbents to rely on for this information . Rather technical diagrams , simulations , and equipment designers can provide information regarding the training requirements, tasks, and conditions under which the job is performed.

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4. Online technology is available to monitor and track employee performance. This information is useful for identifying training needs and providing employees with feedback regarding their skills strengths and weaknesses. Example :- Call centres.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3):

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3) Technique Advantages Disadvantages Observation Generates data relevant to work environment Minimizes interruption of work Needs skilled observer Employees ’ behavior may be affected by being observed Questionnaires Inexpensive Can collect data from a large number of persons Data easily summarized Requires time Possible low return rates, inappropriate responses Lacks detail Only provides information directly related to questions asked

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3):

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3) Technique Advantages Disadvantages Interviews Good at uncovering details of training needs Good at uncovering causes and solutions of problems Can explore unanticipated issues that come up Questions can be modified Time consuming Difficult to analyze Needs skilled interviewer Difficult to schedule SMEs only provide information they think you want to hear Focus Groups Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to explore Questions can be modified to explore unanticipated issues Time consuming to organize Group members provide information they think you want to hear Status or position differences may limit participation

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3):

Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3) Technique Advantages Disadvantages On line Technology ( Software ) Objective Minimizes interruption of Work Requires limited human involvement May threaten employees Manager may use information to punish rather than train . Limited to jobs requiring interaction with customers via Computer or phone.

The Needs Analysis Process:

The Needs Analysis Process Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training? Person Characteristics Input Output Consequences Feedback Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model Work Activity (Task) KSAs Working Conditions Organizational Analysis Strategic Direction Support of Managers, Peers & Employees for Training Activities Training Resources

Organizational Analysis :

Organizational Analysis Involves identifying: whether training supports the company’s strategic direction whether managers, peers, and employees support training activity what training resources are available

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (1 of 3):

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (1 of 3) How might the training content affect our employees’ relationship with our customers? What might suppliers, customers, or partners need to know about the training program? How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business? Should organizational resources be devoted to this program?

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (2 of 3):

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (2 of 3) What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed? What features of the work environment might interfere with training? Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program?

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (3 of 3):

Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (3 of 3) Will employees perceive the training program as: an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time? Example :- Companies that believe learning contributes to their competitive advantage or that have adopted high performance work systems( e.g teams) are likely to have greater training budgets and conduct more training.

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TRAINING RESOURCES It is necessary to identify whether the company has the budget, time , and expertise for training. Example :- If the company is installing computer – based manufacturing equipment in one of its plants, it has 3 possible strategies for dealing with the computer – literate employees. One way to identify training resources is for companies that have similar operations or departments located across the country or the world to share practices. Example :- Pfizer Pharmaceuticals created a “ virtual learning team “ to promote the sharing of “ best practices “ in technical training among its U.S . Manufacturing sites. The team has made some valuable contributions, including the development of a new operator training standard, a 10 step method for teaching and evaluating the skills of employees who make drug products or operate machinery.

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Many companies identify vendors and consultants who can provide training services by using requests for proposals. A request for proposals is a document that outlines for potential vendors and consultants the type of service the company is seeking, the type of service the company is seeking, the type and number of references needed, the number of employees who need to be trained, funding for the project , the follow-up process used to determine level of satisfaction and service , expected date of completion of the project , and the date when proposals must be received by the company.

Process for Analyzing the Factors That Influence Employee Performance and Learning:

Process for Analyzing the Factors That Influence Employee Performance and Learning

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Person analysis helps to identify employees who need training , that is , whether employees current performance or expected performance indicates a need for training. A major pressure point for training is poor or substandard performance. This process involves determining employee’s readiness for training. Readiness for training refers to whether :- Employees have the personal characteristics ( ability, attitudes, beliefs, and motivation ) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job. 2. The work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance. Person characteristics refer to the employees’ knowledge, skill, ability , and attitudes. Input relates to the instructions that tell employees what, how , and when to perform. Input also refers to the resources that the employees are given to help them perform. Output refers to the job’s performance standards. Consequences refer to the type of incentives that employees receive for performing well. Feedback refers to the information that employees receive while they are performing.

Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (1 of 3):

Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (1 of 3) Person characteristics cognitive ability reading ability self-efficacy awareness of training needs, career interests, and goals Input employees’ perceptions of the work environment. – Situational & Social constraints are determinants of performance & motivation

Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (3 of 3):

Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (3 of 3) Output Poor or substandard performance can occur on the job because do not know at what level they are expected to perform. standard to judge successful performers Consequences positive consequences/incentives to perform few negative consequences to perform Feedback frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed

Person Analysis: Self-Efficacy:

Person Analysis: Self-Efficacy Employees believe that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training program The job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the past The training environment can also be threatening to people who have not received training or formal education for some length of time

Increasing Employees’ Self-Efficacy Level (1 of 2):

Increasing Employees’ Self-Efficacy Level (1 of 2) Letting employees know that the purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetent Providing as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training

Increasing Employees’ Self-Efficacy Level (2 of 2):

Increasing Employees’ Self-Efficacy Level (2 of 2) Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program

Task Analysis:

Task Analysis Task analysis results in a description of work activities, including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to complete the tasks. Should only be undertaken after you have determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training

Steps in a Task Analysis:

Steps in a Task Analysis Select the job(s) to be analyzed Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (1 of 3):

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (1 of 3) Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the job Task analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasks Use more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (2 of 3):

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (2 of 3) For task analysis to be useful, information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs) SMEs include: job incumbents managers employees familiar with the job

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (3 of 3):

Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (3 of 3) In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company’s goals and objectives These may not be the tasks that are the most difficult or take the most time

Scope of Needs Assessment:

Scope of Needs Assessment Time constraints can limit the length and detail obtained from needs assessment The scope of the needs assessment depends on the size of the potential “pressure point” You will be able to anticipate training needs if you are attuned to the: business problems technological developments other issues facing the organization

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Learning: Theories and Program Design

Introduction (1 of 2):

Introduction (1 of 2) Conditions necessary for learning to occur: opportunities for trainees to practice and receive feedback meaningful training content prerequisites trainees need to successfully complete the program allowing trainees to learn through observation and experience.

Introduction (2 of 2):

Introduction (2 of 2) For learning to occur it is important to identify what is to be learned i.e., to identify learning outcomes Understanding learning outcomes is crucial they influence characteristics of the training environment necessary for learning to occur The design of the training program is also important for learning to occur

What Is Learning?:

What Is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.

Learning Outcomes (1 of 3):

Learning Outcomes (1 of 3) Verbal information includes names or labels, facts, and bodies of knowledge includes specialized knowledge employees need in their jobs Intellectual skills include concepts and rules critical to solve problems, serve customers, and create products

Learning Outcomes (2 of 3):

Learning Outcomes (2 of 3) Motor skills include coordination of physical movements Attitudes combination of beliefs and feeling that pre-dispose a person to behave a certain way important work-related attitudes include job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, and job involvement. Training programs may be used to develop or change attitude because attitudes have been shown to be related to physical and mental withdrawal from work , turnover and behaviors that impact the well being of the company.

Learning Outcomes (3 of 3):

Learning Outcomes (3 of 3) Cognitive strategies regulate the process of learning they relate to the learner’s decision regarding: what information to attend to (i.e., pay attention to) how to remember how to solve problems

Learning Theories:

Learning Theories Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories Need Theories Expectancy Theory Adult Learning Theory Information Processing Theory

Reinforcement Theory (1 of 2):

Reinforcement Theory (1 of 2) Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors positive reinforcement negative reinforcement extinction punishment

Reinforcement Theory (2 of 2):

Reinforcement Theory (2 of 2) From a training perspective, it suggests that the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive (and negative) for learners to: acquire knowledge change behavior modify skills Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors. Behavior Modification is training method that is primarily based on reinforcement theory.

Social Learning Theory (1 of 3):

Social Learning Theory (1 of 3) Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable Recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated The models’ behavior or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer

Social Learning Theory (2 of 3):

Social Learning Theory (2 of 3) Learning new skills or behavior comes from: directly experiencing the consequences of using behavior or skills, or the process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior Learning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy self-efficacy – a person’s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills

Social Learning Theory (3 of 3):

Social Learning Theory (3 of 3) Self-efficacy can be increased using: verbal persuasion – offering words of encouragement to convince others they can learn logical verification – perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered observation of others (modeling) – having employees who already have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees past accomplishments – allowing employees to build a history of successful accomplishments

Processes of Social Learning Theory:

Processes of Social Learning Theory Match Modeled Performance Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Processes Model Stimuli Trainee Characteristics Coding Organization Rehearsal Physical Capability Accuracy Feedback Reinforcement

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Learners are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in positive outcomes. Social learning theory emphasizes that behaviors that are reinforced will be repeated in the future. Social learning theory is the primary basis for behavior modeling training and has influenced the development of multimedia training programs.

Goal Theories:

Goal Theories Goal Setting Theory Goal Orientation

Goal Setting Theory (1 of 3):

Goal Setting Theory (1 of 3) Assumes behavior results from a person’s conscious goals and intentions Goals influence behavior by: directing energy and attention sustaining effort over time motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment

Goal Setting Theory (2 of 3):

Goal Setting Theory (2 of 3) Specific challenging goals result in better performance than vague, unchallenging goals Goals lead to high performance only if people are committed to the goal Employees are less likely to be committed to a goal if they believe it is too difficult

Goal Setting Theory (3 of 3):

Goal Setting Theory (3 of 3) Goal setting theory is used in training program design It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans

Goal Orientation (1 of 3):

Goal Orientation (1 of 3) Refers to the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation learning orientation – relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a task performance orientation – refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to others

Goal Orientation (2 of 3):

Goal Orientation (2 of 3) It affects the amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (motivation to learn) Learners with a high l earning orientation : direct greater attention to the task learn for the sake of learning

Goal Orientation (3 of 3):

Goal Orientation (3 of 3) Learners with a high performance orientation : direct more attention to performing well devote less effort to learning Trainees with a learning orientation: exert greater effort to learn and use more complex learning strategies than trainees with a performance orientation

Need Theories:

Need Theories Help explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes need – a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time. Suggest that to motivate learning: trainers should identify trainees’ needs, and communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs If the basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn

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