topography

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TOPOGRAPHY SURVEY:

TOPOGRAPHY SURVEY

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION When Total Surveys was founded, the main core work for the company at that time was topographical surveys for the estate development market; so our surveyors have considerable experience of carrying out surveys of this nature.

MEANINGS:

MEANINGS Topography refers to the characteristics of the land surface. These characteristics include relief, natural features, and artificial (or man-made) features. Relief is the conjuration of the earth’s surface and includes such features as hills, valleys, plains, summits, depressions, and other natural features, such as trees, streams, and lakes. Man-made features are highways, bridges, dams, wharfs, buildings, and so forth. A graphic representation of the topography of an area is called a topographic map. A topographic map is simply a drawing that shows the natural and artificial features of an area. A topographic survey is a survey conducted to obtain the data needed for the preparation of a topographic map. This data consists of the horizontal and vertical locations of the features to be shown on the map.

FUNCTION:

FUNCTION The fieldwork in a topographic survey consists principally of the establishment of a basic frame-work of horizontally and vertically located control points (called instrument points or stations) and the determination of the horizontal and vertical locations of details in the vicinity of each instrument point. We will begin our discussions with topographic control .

Topographic control consists of two parts: :

Topographic control consists of two parts: H orizontal control, which locates the horizontally fixed position of specified control points. V ertical control, in which the elevations of specified bench marks are established. This control provides the framework from which topographic details, such as roads, buildings, rivers, and the elevation of ground points, are located.

USAGE:

USAGE Used to measured the different of elevation between two point in woody or hilly areas. The chain level gives additional flexibility to do fast and inexpensive topographic survey in such environment.

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