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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Chapter 10: Crafting the Service EnvironmentOverview of Chapter 10: Overview of Chapter 10 What Is the Purpose of Service Environments? Understanding Consumer Responses to Service Environments Dimensions of the Service Environment Putting It All TogetherSlide 3: What Is the Purpose of Service Environments?Purpose of Service Environments: Purpose of Service Environments Helps firm to create distinctive image and unique positioning Service environment affects buyer behavior in three ways: Message-creating medium: Symbolic cues to communicate the distinctive nature and quality of the service experience Attention-creating medium: Make servicescape stand out from competition and attract customers from target segments Effect-creating medium: Use colors, textures, sounds, scents and spatial design to enhance desired service experienceComparison of Hotel Lobbies (Fig 10.1): Comparison of Hotel Lobbies ( Fig 10.1) Four Seasons Hotel, New York Orbit Hotel and Hostel, Los Angeles Each servicescape clearly communicates and reinforces its hotel ’ s respective positioning and sets service expectations as guests arriveServicescape as Part of Value Proposition: Physical surroundings help shape appropriate feelings and reactions in customers and employees For example: Disneyland, Denmark’s Legoland Servicescapes form a core part of the value proposition For example: Club Med, Las Vegas, Florida-based Muvico Las Vegas: Repositioned itself to a somewhat more wholesome fun resort, visually striking entertainment center Florida-based Muvico: Builds extravagant movie theatres and offers plush amenities. “What sets you apart is how you package it..” (Muvico’s CEO, Hamid Hashemi) The power of servicescapes is being discovered Servicescape as Part of Value PropositionSlide 7: Understanding Consumer Responses to Service EnvironmentsThe Mehrabian-Russell Stimulus-Response Model (Fig 10.2): The Mehrabian-Russell Stimulus-Response Model (Fig 10.2) Response/ Behavior: Approach Avoidance and Cognitive Processes Environmental Stimuli and Cognitive Processes Dimensions of Affect: Pleasure and Arousal Feelings Are a Key Driver of Customer Responses to Service EnvironmentsInsights from Mehrabian-Russell Stimulus-Response Model: Insights from Mehrabian-Russell Stimulus-Response Model Simple yet fundamental model of how people respond to environments The environment, its conscious and unconscious perceptions, and interpretation influence how people feel in that environment Feelings, rather than perceptions/thoughts drive behavior Typical outcome variable is “ approach ” or “ avoidance ” of an environment, but other possible outcomes can be added to modelThe Russell Model of Affect Fig 10.3: The Russell Model of Affect Fig 10.3 Arousing Pleasant Sleepy Unpleasant Exciting Relaxing Boring DistressingInsights from Russell Model of Affect: Insights from Russell Model of Affect Emotional responses to environments can be described along two main dimensions: Pleasure: Direct, subjective, depending on how much individual likes or dislikes environment Arousal: How stimulated individual feels, depends largely on information rate or load of an environment Russell separated cognitive part of emotions from these two emotional dimensions Advantage: simplicity, allows a direct assessment of how customers feel Firms can set targets for affective states Drivers of Affect: Drivers of Affect Affect can be caused by perceptions and cognitive processes of any degree of complexity It’s the simple cognitive processes that determine how people feel in a service setting If higher levels of cognitive processes are triggered, the interpretation of this process determines people’s feelings The more complex a cognitive process becomes, the more powerful its potential impact on affect. However, most service encounters are routine and simple processes can determine affect.Behavioral Consequence of Affect : Behavioral Consequence of Affect Pleasant environments result in approach, whereas unpleasant ones result in avoidance Arousal amplifies the basic effect of pleasure on behavior If environment is pleasant, increasing arousal can generate excitement, leading to a stronger positive consumer response If environment is unpleasant, increasing arousal level will move customers into the “distressed” region Feelings during service encounters are an important driver of customer loyaltyAn Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model (Fig 10.4): Ambient Conditions Space/ Function Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Cognitive Emotional Psychological An Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model ( Fig 10.4) ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENT MODERATORS INTERNAL RESPONSES BEHAVIOR Source: Mary J. Bitner, “ Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees, ” Journal of Marketing 56 (April 1992), pp. 57-71. Perceived Servicescape Employee Response Moderator Customer Response Moderator Employee Responses Customer Responses Cognitive Emotional Psychological Approach Affiliation Exploration Stay longer Satisfaction Avoid (opposite of a pproach) Approach Attraction Stay/Explore Spend More $$$ Satisfaction Avoid (opposite of approach) Social Interaction Between Customers and EmployeesAn Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model (2): An Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model (2) Identifies the main dimensions in a service environment and views them holistically Internal customer and employee responses can be categorized into cognitive, emotional, and psychological responses, which lead to overt behavioral responses towards the environment Key to effective design is how well each individual dimension fits together with everything elseSlide 16: Dimensions of the Service EnvironmentMain Dimensions in Servicescape Model: Main Dimensions in Servicescape Model Ambient Conditions Characteristics of environment pertaining to our five senses Music (e.g, fast tempo and high volume increase arousal levels) Scent (strong impact on mood, affect and evaluative responses, purchase intention and in-store behavior) Color (e.g, warm colors associated with elated mood states and arousal but also increase anxiety, cool colors reduce arousal but can elicit peacefulness and calm)Slide 18: Spatial Layout and Functionality Spatial layout: Floorplan Size and shape of furnishings, counters, machinery,equipment, and how they are arranged Functionality: Ability of those items to facilitate performance Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Explicit or implicit signals to: Communicate firm’s image Help consumers find their way Convey rules of behaviorImpact of Ambient Conditions: Impact of Ambient Conditions Ambient environment is composed of hundreds of design elements and details that must work together to create desired service environment Ambient conditions are perceived both separately and holistically, and include: Lighting and color schemes Size and shape perceptions Sounds such as noise and music Temperature Scents Clever design of these conditions can elicit desired behavioral responses among consumers Impact of Music: Impact of Music In service settings, music can have a powerful effect on perceptions and behaviors, even if played at barely audible levels Structural characteristics of music―such as tempo, volume, and harmony―are perceived holistically Fast tempo music and high volume music increase arousal levels People tend to adjust their pace, either voluntarily or involuntarily, to match tempo of music Careful selection of music can deter wrong type of customersImpact of Music on Restaurant Diners : Impact of Music on Restaurant Diners Restaurant Patron Behavior Fast-beat Music Environment Slow-beat Music Environment Difference between Slow- and Fast-beat Environments Absolute Difference % Difference Consumer time spent at table 45min 56min +11min +24% Spending on food $55.12 $55.81 +$0.69 +1% Spending on beverages $21.62 $30.47 +$8.85 +41% Total spending $76.74 $86.28 +$9.54 +12% Estimated gross margin $48.62 $55.82 +$7.20 +15% Source: Ronald E. Milliman (1982), “Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers,” Journal Of Marketing, 56 ( 3): pp. 86–91Impact of Scent: Impact of Scent An ambient smell is one that pervades an environment May or may not be consciously perceived by customers Not related to any particular product Scents have distinct characteristics and can be used to solicit emotional, physiological, and behavioral responses In service settings, research has shown that scents can have significant effect on customer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviorsEffects of Scents on Perceptions of Store Environments (1): Effects of Scents on Perceptions of Store Environments (1) Evaluation Unscented Environment Mean Ratings Scented Environment Mean Ratings Difference Store Evaluation Negative/positive 4.65 5.24 +0.59 Outdated/modern 3.76 4.72 +0.96 Store Environment Unattractive/ attractive 4.12 4.98 +0.86 Drab/colorful 3.63 4.72 +1.09 Boring/Stimulating 3.75 4.40 +0.65 Source: Eric R. Spangenberg, Ayn E. Crowley, and Pamela W. Hendersen (1996), “Improving the Store Environment: Do Olfactory Cues Affect Evaluations and Behaviors?,” Journal Of Marketing, (April): pp. 67–80.Effects of Scents on Perceptions of Store Environments (2): Effects of Scents on Perceptions of Store Environments (2) Evaluation Unscented Environment Mean Ratings Scented Environment Mean Ratings Difference Merchandise Outdated/up-to-date style 4.71 5.43 +0.72 Inadequate/adequate 3.80 4.65 +0.85 Low/high quality 4.81 5.48 +0.67 Low/high price 5.20 4.93 -0.27 Source: Eric R. Spangenberg, Ayn E. Crowley, and Pamela W. Hendersen (1996), “Improving the Store Environment: Do Olfactory Cues Affect Evaluations and Behaviors?,” Journal Of Marketing, (April): pp. 67–80Aromatherapy: Effects of Selected Fragrances on People (Table 10.2): Aromatherapy: Effects of Selected Fragrances on People (Table 10.2) Fragrance Aroma Type Aroma-Therapy Class Traditional Use Potential Psychological Effect on People Eucalyptus Camphor-aceous Toning, stimulating Deodorant, antiseptic, soothing agent Stimulating and energizing Lavender Herbaceous Calming, balancing, soothing Muscle relaxant, soothing agent, astringent Relaxing and calming Lemon Citrus Energizing, uplifting Antiseptic, soothing agent Soothing energy levels Black pepper Spicy Balancing, soothing Muscle relaxant, aphrodisiac Balancing people’s emotionsImpact of Color: Impact of Color Colors can be stimulating, calming, expressive, disturbing, impressional, cultural, exuberant, symbolic Color pervades every aspect of our lives, embellishes the ordinary, gives beauty and drama to everyday objects Colors have a strong impact on people ’ s feelings Colors can be defined into three dimensions: Hue is the pigment of the color Value is the degree of lightness or darkness of the color Chroma refers to hue-intensity, saturation, or brillianceCommon Associations and Human Responses to Colors (Table 10.3): Common Associations and Human Responses to Colors (Table 10.3) Color Degree of Warmth Nature Symbol Common Association and Human Responses to Color Red Warm Earth High energy and passion; can excite and stimulate Orange Warmest Sunset Emotions, expressions, warmth Yellow Warm Sun Optimism, clarity, intellect, mood-enhancing Green Cool Growth, grass, and trees Nurturing, healing, unconditional love Blue Coolest Sky and ocean Relaxation, serenity, loyalty Indigo Cool Sunset Mediation and spirituality Violet Cool Violet flower Spirituality, reduces stress, can create an inner feeling of calmSelection of Environmental Design Elements: Selection of Environmental Design Elements There is a multitude of research on the perception and impact of environmental stimuli on behaviour, including: People density, crowding Lighting Sound/noise Scents and odours Queues No standard formula to designing the perfect combination of these elements. Design from the customer’s perspective Design with a holistic view!Impact of Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts: Impact of Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Guide customers clearly through process of service delivery Customers will automatically try to draw meaning from the signs, symbols, and artifacts Unclear signals from a servicescape can result in anxiety and uncertainty about how to proceed and obtain the desired service For instance, signs can be used to reinforce behavioral rules (see picture on next slide)Signs Teach and Reinforce Behavioral Rules in Service Settings (Fig 10.7): Signs Teach and Reinforce Behavioral Rules in Service Settings (Fig 10.7) Note: Fines are in Singapore dollars (equivalent to roughly US $300)People Are Part of the Service Environment (Fig 10.8) : People Are Part of the Service Environment (Fig 10.8) Distinctive Servicescapes Create Customer ExpectationsSlide 32: Putting It All TogetherSelection of Environmental Design Elements: Selection of Environmental Design Elements Consumers perceive service environments holistically - There is a multitude of research on the perception and impact of environmental stimuli on behaviour, including: People density, crowding Lighting Sound/noise Scents and odours QueuesSlide 34: Design with a holistic view Servicescapes have to be seen holistically: No dimension of design can be optimized in isolation, because everything depends on everything else Holistic characteristic of environments makes designing service environment an art See Research Insights 10.2: Match and Mismatch of Scent and Music in Singapore Must design from a customer’s perspective No standard formula to designing the perfect combination of these elements. Design from the customer’s perspective Design with a holistic view!Tools to Guide Servicescape Design: Tools to Guide Servicescape Design Keen observation of customers’ behavior and responses to the service environment by management, supervisors, branch managers, and frontline staff Feedback and ideas from frontline staff and customers, using a broad array of research tools from suggestion boxes to focus groups and surveys. Field experiments can be used to manipulate specific dimensions in an environment and the effects observed. Blueprinting or service mapping — extended to include physical evidence in the environment.Summary of Chapter 10: Crafting the Service Environment (1): Summary of Chapter 10: Crafting the Service Environment (1) Service environment: Shapes customers’ experiences and behavior Facilitates service encounters Enhances productivity Mehrabian-Russell stimulus-response model and Russell’s model of affect help us understand customer responses to service environments Pleasure and arousal Approach/avoidance Servicescape model is integrative framework of consumer responses to service environments. Main dimensions: Ambient conditions — music, scent, color, etc. Spatial layout and functionality Signs, symbols, and artifacts People are also part of service environmentSummary of Chapter 10: Crafting the Service Environment (2): Summary of Chapter 10: Crafting the Service Environment (2) Putting it all together, firms should: Design with a holistic view Design from a customer’s perspective Use tools to guide servicescape design Some tools for guiding servicescape design are: Keen observation of customers’ behavior and responses in service environments Feedback and ideas from frontline staff and customers Field experiments to manipulate specific dimensions to observe effects Blueprinting physical evidence of environment You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.