4g technology


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INTRODUCTION:- Mobile communications and wireless networks are developing at an astounding speed. The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems and IP-based one. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC (Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service).

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WHAT IS 4G?.. 4G is the next evolution in wireless broadband connectivity, designed primarily for data transport versus voice networks pulling double-duty as data movers. Fourth Generation Technology •Faster and more reliable –100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) •Lower cost than previous generation •Multi-standard wireless system –Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) •Ad Hoc Networking •IPv6 Core •OFDM used instead of CDMA •Potentially IEEE standard 802.11

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WIMAX: The terms "WiMAX“(Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access) , "mobile WiMAX", "802.16d" and "802.16e" are frequently used incorrectly. Correct definitions are the following: 802.16-2004 is often called 802.16d, since that was the working party that developed the standard. It is also frequently referred to as "fixed WiMAX" since it has no support for mobility. 802.16e-2005 is an amendment to 802.16-2004 and is often referred to in shortened form as 802.16e. It introduced support for mobility, among other things and is therefore also known as "Mobile WiMAX".

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LTE: LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). With speeds up to 250 Mbps tested, LTE is a proprietary protocol being designed by carriers and equipment vendors such as AT&T, Verizon, Vodafone, T-Mobile and NTT DoCoMo. Regarding speed, LTE will be faster than current WiMAX networks, however 802.16m will close the speed gap. LTE Advantages: Fast, with peak data rates of 100 Mbps download and 50 Mbps upload. It makes CDMA and GSM debates moot. LTE will have lower latency, which makes real-time interaction on high band-width applications using mobiles possible.

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FEATURES OF 4G: AdHoc Networks: Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices. Not necessarily connected to internet. 4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks. Form of mesh networking–Very reliable.

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Smart Antennas: Beam radio signals directly at a user to follow the user as they move. Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other users without worry of interference. Seamless handoff between towers/access points. One transmit antenna, two receive antennas. Definition: A smart antenna system combines multiple antenna elements with a signal processing capability to optimize its radiation and/or reception pattern automatically in response to the signal environment.

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Mobile IPv6: More addresses than current version of IP protocol (Version 4) each device can have own IP –Keep IP address even if you change access point. –Presently translate IP with each change because not enough IP addresses to go around. •IP Core-everything can talk to each other if they speak the same “language”.

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Mobile VOIP: • “Voice Over Internet Protocol”. • Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred, eliminating complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit. • All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet –lower latency data transmission (faster transmission) . • Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet. •Increases battery life due to greater data compression .

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OFDM: •Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. •Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc). •Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver. •Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band –No gaps to prevent interference needed. •Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and Wi-Fi(802.11a/g).

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APPLICATIONS: Virtual Navigation Tele-Medicine Crisis Management Applications

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 4G: Advantages: • High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology. • Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost. •Higher bandwidth, tight network security. Disadvantages: The equipment required to implement a next generation network is still very expensive. Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that expenses are kept realistic.

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CONCLUSION: Low cost high speed data will drive forward the fourth generation (4G) as short- range communication emerges. It is probable that the radio access network will evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one. 4G is likely to enable the download of full length songs or music pieces which may change the market response dramatically. Innovations in network technology will provide an environment in which virtually anything is available, anywhere, at any time, via any connected device.

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REFERNCES: FDMA vs. TDMA vs CDMA: What is the difference? Rice University. 11/15/2006 http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~elec301/Projects01/cdma/compare.html CDMA Overview. UMTS. 11/15/2006 http://www.umtsworld.com/technology/cdmabasics.htm http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~jxie/4G/ http://voicendata.ciol.com/content/columns/fromcell/101010301.asp http://www.linkair.com/press_room/media_coverage.html http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/ptech/03/08/4G.world.idg/

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