the synoptic problem

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The Synoptic Problem : 

The Synoptic Problem

What is a Gospel? : 

What is a Gospel? Gospel (Euaggelion) = Good News Ancient Biographies “An ancient biography depicts the essence of a significant person.” - Charles Talbert

Ancient Biography : 

Ancient Biography a. Some Examples: i. Plutarch’s Parallel Lives ii. Suetonius’ Lives of the Twelve Caesars iii. Philo of Alexandria’s Life of Moses

Ancient Biography and Gospel : 

Ancient Biography and Gospel b. Similarities in Form: i. Narrative ii. Birth and Lineage iii. Discussion of Education iv. Report of Offices Held v. Account of Deeds vi. Manner of Death

The Synoptic Problem : 

The Synoptic Problem (Handout)

Early Theories : 

Early Theories

Early Theories : 

Early Theories

Four Source Hypothesis : 

Four Source Hypothesis MARK Q MATTHEW L M LUKE

Arguments for Markan Priority : 

Arguments for Markan Priority The Brevity of Mark If Mark was written first, then the need for Matthew and/or Luke is understandable. If Matthew and/or Luke was written before Mark, then it hard to see why Mark was needed: he omits birth narratives, teachings of Jesus, resurrection stories.

Arguments for Markan Priority : 

Arguments for Markan Priority 2. Verbal Agreements among Gospels Matthew and Mark agree against Luke Luke and Mark agree against Matthew But Matthew and Luke never agree against Mark. Mark must be the common denominator. 3. The Order of Events Same as above

Arguments for Markan Priority : 

Arguments for Markan Priority 4. Mark's more awkward and primitive style: It is more likely that Matthew and Luke smooth out Mark's irregularities. Aramaic expressions are omitted in Matthew and Luke.

Arguments for Markan Priority : 

Arguments for Markan Priority 5. Mark's more primitive theology: Mark 6:5: "He could do no deed of power there." Matthew 13:58: "He did not do many deeds of power there."

Arguments for Markan Priority : 

Arguments for Markan Priority 5. Mark's more primitive theology: Mark 10:17-18: "Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?" Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone." Matthew 19:16: "Teacher, what good deed must I do to have eternal life?" And he said to him, "Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good."

Q : 

Q Q = Quelle, "Source" Matthew and Luke have about 250 verses in common not found in Mark. These verses have a high degree of verbal similarity which suggests a common written source.

Approaches to the Study of the Gospels : 

Approaches to the Study of the Gospels Tradition-Historical Approaches (diachronic) Source Criticism Form Criticism Redaction Criticism Literary Approaches (synchronic) Narrative Criticism Rhetorical Criticism

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