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Expert Workshop onBenchmarks and Chapter IV (Operation Guidelines) Case-study:‘Group of Monuments’ World Heritage Site, HAMPI Dr. S.V.P. HalakattiSuperintending Archaeologist Paris 2007

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IntroductionHAMPI

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HAMPI - LOCATION Source - Hampi: The Fabled Capital of the Vijaynagara Empire; Karnataka Archaeology

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HAMPIPre 1986

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HAMPI LANDMARKS 1565 the Vijaynagara empire ended after being attacked and plundered. Late 19th century – Hampi received attention from the then British Indian Government. 1903 (Pre-independence) - the monuments were protected by the then Archaeological Survey of India under the Ancient Monuments Act (1903-04). 1956 (post independence)- Ancient Monuments Act; 56 ‘monuments’ declared as nationally protected monuments and 700 protected by the Karnataka State Department of Archaeology under its Act. 1980- Beginning of the International Documentation project bringing in international focus to the place.

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HAMPI(1986-1999) World Heritage Site

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STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE, World Heritage Committee 1986- Inscription of the Group of monuments of Hampi on the list of World heritage List. The austere, grandiose site of Hampi was the last capital of the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar. Its fabulous rich princes built Dravidian temples and palaces, which won the admiration of travelers between the 14th and 16th centuries. Conquered by the Deccan Muslim confederacy in 1565, the city was pillaged over a period of six months before being abandoned. Imposing monumental vestiges, partially disengaged and reclaimed, today, make Hampi one of the most seizing ruins of the world.

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IntroductionHAMPI – FROM THE EYES OF THE TRAVELLERS ‘The city of Bidjanagar is such that the pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it, and the ear of intelligence has never informed that there existed anything to equal it in the world. It is built in such a manner that seven citadel and the same number of walls enclosed each other’ Abdu’r Razzak, the Persian Ambassador, who sojourned to the Vijayanagara in AD 1443

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World Heritage Site, HampiOUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUES Criteria i, iii, iv (i) to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; Hampi represents a unique artistic creation (iii) to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; The city bares exceptional testimony to the vanished civilization of the kingdom of Vijayanagara, which reached its apogee in the reign of Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1530) (iv) to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage in human history; This capital offers an outstanding example of a type structure, which illustrates a significant historical situation; that of the kingdoms of South India menaced by the Muslims occasionally aligned with Portuguese of Goa.

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WORLD HERITAGE SITE “The most magnificent extensive and varied ruins of a metropolis. A richly constituted military, civil religious residential and secular remains amidst the most picturesque hills and river setting. Architecture, sculpture, painting and stucco are all integrated in the remains” .

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World Heritage Site, HampiOUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUES ICOMOS RECOMMENDATIONS (at the time of inscription) The proposed cultural property be inscribed on the World Heritage list, on the condition that there be an extension of the area of protection to the whole of the Archaeological site A new definition of the cultural property of Hampi, which would take into account the whole of the natural and archaeological resources of the site and not just several isolated monuments should be formulated in view of being able to justify its inscription on the world heritage list based on criteria (1), (3) and (4). MANAGEMENT PLAN (recommendations) (v).  Superlative natural setting of exceptional beauty, (vi). A broad spectrum of associational value identified from religious to secular royal to common, and living tradition.

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HAMPI Architecture, Cultural Landscape and Living Traditions

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Heritage ComponentsSETTING OF THE ANCIENT CAPITAL - HILLS

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Heritage ComponentsBOULDERS

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Heritage ComponentsRIVER

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Heritage ComponentsTHE GATEWAYS

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Heritage ComponentsARCHAEOLOGY AND EXCAVATED SITES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE SACRED STRUCTURES source - City OF Victory; John. M. Fritz and George Michell

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Heritage ComponentsTHE VALLEYS – TEMPLE AND ITS BAZAR

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Heritage ComponentsTHE SACRED STRUCTURES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF HAMPI

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Heritage ComponentsTHE RUINS OF HAMPI

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Heritage ComponentsTEMPLE COMPLEXES Source - Hampi: The Fabled Capital of the Vijaynagara Empire; Karnataka Archaeology

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Heritage ComponentsTHE SACRED STRUCTURES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE FESTIVAL STRUCTURES Source - Hampi: The Fabled Capital of the Vijaynagara Empire; Karnataka Archaeology

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Heritage ComponentsTHE ROYAL CENTER Source - Hampi: The Fabled Capital of the Vijaynagara Empire; Karnataka Archaeology

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Heritage ComponentsTHE ROYAL CENTER

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Heritage ComponentsWATER SYSTEMS

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Heritage ComponentsTHE ORNAMENTAL FEATURES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE STONE SCULPTURES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE SCULPTURES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE LIVING VILLAGES

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Heritage ComponentsTHE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

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Heritage ComponentsTHE ARTS AND CRAFTS

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Heritage ComponentsTRADITIONL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS – THE CORACLES

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Heritage ComponentsFOLK TRADITIONS

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THE LANDSCAPE OF HAMPI SATELLITE VIEW

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1987- First International Seminar with focus towards the Integrated Development of Hampi. 1988- Notification of the Karnataka State Government to protect 10 villages, an area encompassing a total of 41.8 sq km. This also defined the Core Area for protection 1992- Archaeological Survey of India’s notification on the 100m protected zone and 200m of regulatory zone. 1999- First attempt to prepare a Development plan by the NID, initiated by Department of Tourism, Government of Karnataka. this report brought forth the concept of ZONING. World Heritage Site, HampiSIGNIFICANT EVENTS

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1997- the construction of the bridge commences, four years after the laying of the foundation stone. 1997- ASI objects to the construction and brings it to the notice of the authorities at the local level. ASI recommends to divert the path. 1999- Union Minister of Culture (Central Government) expresses concern to the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Asks the State Government to set up a task force. Task force headed by Chief Secretary and with experts set up to review the bridge Task force recommends the removal of the two bridges. World Heritage Site, HampiSIGNIFICANT EVENTS

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1999- UNESCO representative Junko Tanaguchi visits Hampi for the first impression of the situation. Bridge construction still continues Junko Tanaguchi highlights the threats. Recommends immediate corrective measures Removal of threats causes by two bridges Recommends the inclusion of the site in World Heritage in Danger. 1999- Inscription of the Group of monuments of Hampi on the list of World heritage in Danger. World Heritage Site, HampiSIGNIFICANT EVENTS

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HAMPI1999 – 2006 World Heritage Site in Danger

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World Heritage Site in Danger, Hampi REMARKS BY THE UNESCO COMMITTEE "The Committee examined the findings of the UNESCO reactive monitoring mission, and expressing deep concern over the partial construction of two cable-suspended bridges within the protected archaeological areas of Hampi, decided to inscribe the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger. …. the potential dangers are threatening the integrity and authenticity of the site, The negative impact caused by the bridges within the World Heritage site were identified as: 1. large scale two way bridge for vehicular traffic and the second footbridge - dominate the extraordinary natural environment and rural setting - threatening the integrity of the World Heritage Site. 2. dislocation and reconstruction of an important historical monument - implementation of existing cultural heritage legislation and policies - to ensure the authenticity of the site. 3. Increased road development and vehicular traffic - hamper archaeological research and excavation in significant areas - cause negative impact on the historical monuments, local inhabitants, tourists and visitors to the site.

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THE CONTROVERSIAL BRIDGE

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UNESCO-ICOMOS (Mission 2000) Corrective Measures(Time Bound Action Plan suggested for enhancing the management) Removal of threats caused by 2 bridges: a safer transportation means between the Anegundi, Hampi and Virpapura gada and Hampi, as an interim course. Needs assessment studies of the local communities, site-managers, local industries with regards to the necessity for transportation of the Tungabhadra River. based on the above two studies determine whether or not it is appropriate to construct bridge, followed by a study for appropriate design and scale of such a bridge, study of alternative location and designs which do not impact negatively on the World Heritage site Scientific impact assessment studies on the World Heritage site caused by such bridges. Halt further construction of the large-scale bridges till the above studies and assessments.

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UNESCO-ICOMOS Corrective Measures: Removal of threats caused by dismantling historic monuments within the WHS: Restore the dislocated historic Mandapa at Anegundi to its original location, to ensure retention of the original morphology and authenticity of the ancient citadel of Anegundi. Ensure no further destruction, dismantling, relocation and defacement of historic monuments.. Implement existing cultural heritage legislation and policies. Removal of threats caused by illegal encroachments within the WHS: Undertake necessary legal action to remove illegal encroachment, particularly the areas surrounding the Virupaksha temple and Hampi Bazaar Mandapas. Prevent any further illegal encroachment. Closely control building within the World Heritage Site.

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UNESCO-ICOMOS Corrective Measures: Removal of POTENTIAL threats caused by ad-hoc development plans within the WHS, including the tourism development plans within Virapapura gada: Develop and Implement a comprehensive management plan and integrated development plans. Develop a plan, establish a GIS Appropriate illegal framework Supported and advised by professional group. Demarcation of the areas. Awareness raising activities

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The encroachments on the cultural landscape The urban growth in the historical villages

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The resorts on the Virupapura Gadda island

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World Heritage Site, Hampi REACTIONS OF THE STATE PARTY The Observer of India expressed his Government’s appreciation to the Committee for its concern over the state of conservation of Hampi. …….. the protection of the extraordinary site of Hampi, the result of centuries of interaction between man and nature, was no easy task. However, the Observer underlined that the integrity of Hampi, comprising approximately 40 kilometers of villages, banana fields, rice paddies, the river, rocks and monuments, must be preserved. The Observer informed that the problem of preservation of the archaeological remains was a classic example of the conflict between heritage conservation and development, and that innovative solutions would have to be found in solving this problem. ……… the construction of the two bridges had been halted. ……… the inscription of the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger would strengthen the capacity of the Archaeological Survey of India and the State Government of Karnataka in their efforts to safeguard this unique site. …….. for assistance to ensure the integrity of the site.

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World Heritage Site, Hampi REACTIVE MONITORING MISSIONS FROM UNESCO 2000 – ICOMOS- UNESCO Mission ( Mr. Junka Tanaguchi and Dr. Wijesuriya) 2001 – Transport Consultative Mission 2003 – Minja Yang and Paul Trouilloud 2004- First Stakeholders meeting prior to the Management Plan 2004- Paul Trouilloud (Workshop on Urban guidelines for capacity building of the Hampi Authority) 2005- UNESCO, ICOMOS, ASI Consultative Review meeting 2006- Stakeholders Meeting with the elected village representatives. 2007- Reactive Monitoring Mission on recommendations of the 30th session.

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World Heritage Site in Danger, Hampi MISSION RECOMMENDATIONS

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World Heritage Site in Danger, Hampi APPROCH OF THE MISSION Surveys Site surveys Study of Proposals and maps at Hampi level Hampi World Heritage Management Authority State Department of Archaeology Stakeholders meeting only started since last mission of 2003. at Regional (state) level Meeting various authorities of the local Karnataka State Government Archaeological Survey of India NGO’s At New Delhi (central) level District Administrators Ministry of Culture.

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World Heritage Site in Danger, Hampi COMMITTEE DECISIONS 27COM 7A.23 - Group of Monuments of Hampi (India) decision to postpone the completion of the vehicular bridge until the by-pass road is constructed. adopting provisional regulations for new construction and renovation. establishment of a technical unit to support the HWHMA. obilize social housing, agricultural support and cottage craft industry subsidies and technical expertise. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 28COM 15A.24 - Group of Monuments at Hampi (India) postpone the completion of the vehicular bridge until the by-pass road is constructed. for implementing other recommendations of the UNESCO Mission of 2003;need of local community participation in the decision making process. Establish a technical unit with appropriate capacity to support the HWHMA. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 29COM 7A.22 - Group of Monuments at Hampi (India) great efforts made in response to the recommendations, established a management authority for the property; required documentation for the resumption of the Anegundi Bridge, notably the traffic regulations on the bypass road and the erection of traffic barriers reassess the construction of the commercial complex Decides to retain Group of Monuments at Hampi on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

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World Heritage Site, Hampi MEASURES TAKEN BY THE STATE PARTY 1999 - The District Commissioner asked to prepare the Management Plan. 2002 - Removal of encroachment by ASI in their monuments 2002 - Setting of the Hampi Development Authority. 2002 - by pass road completed in 2005, land acquired, micro suggestions implemented 2002 - 2005 - The Hampi Act. 2003 - Commencement of the preparation of the Management Plan 2002 - 2003 – Construction of the interpretation center –A new threat. 2003 - ASI initiates preparation of GIS database in collaboration with ISRO.

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World Heritage Site, Hampi MEASURES TAKEN BY THE STATE PARTY 2005 - 5 volumes of the Management Plan prepared and reviewed during the Consultative Review meeting by UNESCO and ICOMOS. 2005 - Preparation of Volume VI on the ‘advisory’ as per the recommendations and submitted in 2006 for review. 2005 - NOC for the completion of the controversial bridge given. 2005 - Transport regulations notified and amended. 2005 - Temp urban guidelines drafted to solve immediate problems of the Hampi Development Authority. 2005 - Appointment of technical expertise for the Authority. 2006 - Decision to shift the Interpretation center. 2006 - Master plan by HWHMA under its own act,. 2006 - Report submitted to the World Heritage Committee on the actions taken to remove the World Heritage site from List of Danger,.

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World Heritage Site, Hampi MEASURES TAKEN BY THE STATE PARTY The by-pass road

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THE STAKEHOLDERS MEET

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THE STAKEHOLDERS MEET

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THE INTERPRETATION CENTER SITE

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World Heritage Site, Hampi 30COM 7A. 24 – STATE OF CONSERVATION (Group of Monuments at Hampi) Decides to remove the Group of Monuments at Hampi (India) from the List of World Heritage in Danger on the basis of following progress achieved: preparation of urban building regulations for the villages in the core zone, steps taken towards the preparation of the Master Plan for the regulation of development activities completion of the bypass road efforts made by the HWHMA for the preparation of traffic control regulations; Expresses its concern about the substantial increase of illegal construction in the core zone;

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…….and imposes following Conditions for further implementation: Adopt and implement the Integrated Management Plan (IMP) Adequate staffing and financial resources to the HWHMA Rehabilitate the abandoned construction site Adopt urban building regulations, Adopt traffic regulations to ban heavy duty vehicular traffic Reconsider and adapt the design and dimensions of the Anegundi Bridge Appropriately address the statement of significance. A reactive monitoring mission will be sent. ( visited in Jan 2007 and report awaited)

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World Heritage Site in Danger, Hampi RECOMMENDATIONS Benchmarks to be more holistic, should reflect all problems of sites rather than focus on one problem.. Need to check all aspects and potential / future threats. A check list, specific to sites, to monitor all parameters. More problem solving then focus towards enhancement of the status. Mission targets to be more realistic based on an understanding of the local socio-political, socio-economic and socio-cultural issues. Benchmarks to be reviewed qualitatively and quantitatively. Measurement exercise over a scale. From the macro level to the micro level. An issue like a bridge or dam or any other activity over the 40 sq kms of heritage zone will affect the outstanding values of the site or are they applicable to the core area of the site. The complexities of the management of the site over such an area are large. Consider Living heritage sites as in Hampi – Issues are different then mere physical, mechanism to understand the ground realities (presently only through discussions with groups). Should set a vision with short term and long term projects Set- time frames as certain solutions can be only accomplished over a period of time and not on annual basis.

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